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Latin America, The Caribbean, and Africa: Latin America / Caribbean: Part 1 of 4: Internet Links - A
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Sexuality Policy Watch (2008): Position Paper on the Language of “Sexual Minorities” and the Politics of Identity.

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Part 1: Issues for People of Colour in some Western Countries. --- Part 3: From the Middle East to Asia.

Section Index

Section 2A - Latin America  & The Caribbean (This Page): - Mexico - Cuba --- Caribbean: Jamaica - Trinidad / Tobago - Puerto Rico - Haiti - Martinique / Guadeloupe - Netherland Antilles - Cayman Islands - Bahamas - Bermuda - Saint Lucia --- General Latin American / Caribbean Resources --- General International Resources.

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Section 2B - "Latin America  & The Caribbean": - Central America: Panama - Honduras - Belize - Costa Rica - Nicaragua - Guatemala - El Salvador --- South America: Brazil - Peru - Chile - Columbia - Argentina - Ecuador - Venezuela - Uruguay - Bolivia - Guyana - Guyane / French Guyana - Paraguay --- Latin American / Caribbean Resources --- General International Resources.

Section 2C - Africa: - South Africa - Kenya - Zambia - Namibia - Nigeria- Uganda - Burkina Faso - Botswana - Ivory Coast - Senegal - Egypt - Algeria- Morocco - Tunesia --- Angola - Benin - Burundi - Cameroon - Cape Verde --- Central African Republic - Chad - Comoros - Republic of Congo - Democratic Republic of Congo --- Equatorial Guinea - Erithrea - Ethiopia - Gabon - Gambia -- Ghana - Guinea - Guinea Bissau - Lesotho - Liberia --- Ghana - Guinea - Guinea Bissau - Lesotho - Liberia --- Mauritius - Mozambique - Niger - Reunion - Rwanda --- Sao Tome and Principe - Seychelles - Sierra Leone - Sudan - Swaziland - Tanzania - Togo --- General African Resources --- General International Resources.
 

LATIN AMERICA


MEXICO (Wikipedia): Mexican Welcome for Gay, Lesbian Catholics: The Changing Tone of Catholic Bishops' Responses to Homosexuality (2011). - Queer Beer is first booze marketed toward gays & lesbians; Mexico-made brew in demand worldwide (2011). - Mexico produces first "artisan honey-ales" directed to the gay-lesbian market (2011). - One dead, five shot in attack in Mexico on gay and transgender sex workers (2011). - O'Reilly: Gays not "being persecuted" in Mexico; in Cancún, Acapulco, and Puerto Vallarta, "there's gay everything" (2007). - Mexico City at vanguard with gay rights, abortion (2007). - Christian Chavez Comes Out (2007). - Christian Chavez is out  (2009). - Gay man killed after refugee claim denied: Murder in Mexico (2007). - The annual Queer Studies Symposiums in Mexico City (2007 to 2011...). - “Simulada”, apertura social en México a la homosexualidad (2011, Translation). - The gay soccer team from Mexico (Video, 2008).

¿Contra quién hay que luchar? ¿Quién es el asesino? (2011, Translation):  Hace pocos días Gaby, una mujer transexual que trabajaba en la zona de Plaza del Sol en la Ciudad de Guadalajara, Estado de Jalisco, México, fue brutalmente asesinada. Un caso más de tantos crímenes de odio hacia personas transgénero que diariamente se reportan en el país y en América Latina. Durante la manifestación en protesta por el crimen de Gaby hablamos con Patricia Betancourt, líder trans mexicana, sobre este y otros casos de transfobia... - Dolor e indignación en Jalisco por crimen de odio contra chica trans (2011, Translation): Mujeres trans, familiares y activistas se congregaron ayer para protestar por la muerte de Gaby, la mujer transexual golpeada y calcinada hace pocos días en Jalisco. Se reunieron en el mismo punto donde por las noches ella se dedicaba al trabajo sexual y donde abordó al sujeto que luego la asesinaría. La familia exige justicia y que no se clasifique el caso como “crimen pasional”... - Continúa la Discriminación a Homosexuales en Michoacán (2011, Translation): Michoacán es el segundo estado más homofóbico y México ocupa el segundo lugar con más homofobia en América Latina y el Caribe, así lo afirmó Gerardo Herrera Pérez, líder del grupo de Facto Diversidad Sexual en Michoacán, quien mencionó que parte del trabajo de las organizaciones civiles se da en las plazas, y actualmente se trabaja con las instancias de gobierno, y se apoya a las personas con VIH para prevenir la discriminación..

 Mexico City Gay Pride 2011 - Marcha del Orgullo LGBT 2011. - X Marcha Gay en Puebla, contrastes, contrastes (2011, Translation). - La comunidad homosexual celebra la XXXIII Marcha del Orgullo en Ciudad de México (2011, Translation).- Gay Pride in Mexico City (2010). - Cancun boasts a gay-friendly vibe to beat the winter wind (2009). - Marcha Gay Mexico 2009 Galeria (YouTube). Mexico City Pride Parade 2007 – XXIX Marcha del Orgullo Lésbico, Gay, Bisexual y Transexual (LGBT) Mexico D.F. 2007. - Mexico City to woo gay travelers (2007).  - Mexico City Pride Parade 2007 - XXIX Marcha del Orgullo Lésbico, Gay, Bisexual y Transexual (LGBT) Mexico D.F. 2007. - Gay Pride Mexico 2007: Galerie Photos. - Gay Pride Photos: Mexico City. - Gay Pride, Mexico City (2006). - Mexico City Dyke March 2006 N/A. - Over 1500 women participate in méxico's first lesbian march (2003). - Mexican Dykes Out for Visibility: For the first time ever in Latin America, lesbians are planning to take to the streets en masse (2003). - Gay Pride in Mexico City (2002). - Tijuana's 1998 Pride Parade.

Preocupa homofobia en México (2010, Translation): El presidente Calderón decreta el 17 de mayo como "Día de la Tolerancia y el Respeto a las Preferencias". - La realidad de la homofobia en México (2010, Translation). - Persiste homofobia en México (2010, Translation). - Contra la homofobia en México (2011, Translation). - Jóvenes católicos repudian homofobia en México (2011, Translation). - La policía y la Iglesia lideran el ranking de homofobia en México (2011, Translation). - Iglesia y homosexualidad, dos caras de México (2010, Translation). - Víctima de homofobia en México cruza la frontera (2011, Translation). - Jornada de lucha contra la homofobia y discriminación sexual  (2011, Translation). - Homofobia en México: La culpa es de los homosexuales (2009, Translation). - Es alta la homofobia en México: CNDH (2009, Translation). - Homofobia en México (YouTube, 2010). - 1era Marcha Contra la homofobia en México 2008 (YouTube). - El Significado De Homosexualidad En Jóvenes De La Ciudad De México (2009, Translation).

The Violations of the Rights of Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender Persons in Mexiso: A Shadow Report (2010): Despite these advances, however, LGBT persons Jornada de lucha contra la homofobia y discriminación sexual continue to face discrimination and human rights violations based on their gender identity and sexual orientation. The overall culture in Mexico remains highly repressive in its attitudes towards LGBTI persons. - Mexico City to become 'gay oasis' (2010): Mexico City's gay community has in recent decades turned the capital into a relative oasis in a strongly Catholic country renowned for its conservatism and machismo...
 The authorities in the Mexican capital are now seeking to attract gay tourism, even though there is still widespread discrimination against them.

The city is well placed "to become the first gay friendly destination in Latin America," said tourism secretary, Alejandro Rojas.

 - México: homosexuales pobres, los más discriminados (2011, Tanslation).  - “Terapias” contra la homosexualidad en México y Argentina (2010, Translation). - Denuncian la “cura de homosexuales” en Mexico y Ecuador (2010, Translation). - Homosexuales en México ganan derechos pero siguen en una "cápsula" (2010, Translation): Los ataques contra homosexuales y lesbianas son poco frecuentes en México, pero sólo una pequeña parte vive abiertamente su preferencia.

Mexico – special report (2010): The following report shows that, although districts within Mexico have been implementing law and policy in favour of sexual minorities' rights, there has been a failure to undo the culture of homophobia within the state protection apparatus. Hate crimes against LGBT individuals continue to be carried out with impunity. Although the younger generation and the more urban districts are becoming increasingly tolerant of homosexual expression, a homophobic culture still predominates among Mexicans. -  Discriminación Sexual (2011, Translation). - Cada mes, 15 homicidios por homofobia en México (2008, Translation). - Informe De Crímenes De Odio Por Homofobia: México 1995-2008: Resultados Preliminares (2009, Alternate Link, Crímenes por Homofobia: odio y discriminación, Translation). - Homosexual decapitated in Mexico (2011). -La población homosexual sufre violencia y exclusión en México según una investigación de la UAM (2007, Translation). - Otra víctima de la intolerancia: joven gay se suicidó por el rechazo de su padre (2011, Translation).

Gay And Lesbian Siblings Refused Refugee Status, Deported From Canada (2011). - As Latin Nations Treat Gays Better, Asylum Is Elusive (2008): Quietly over the past 14 years, gay men and lesbians from Mexico have sought -- and received -- political asylum in the United States based on their sexual orientation and the argument that the culture of "machismo" in their country has sometimes put homosexuals there in danger. But as Mexico and other Latin American countries begin to liberalize laws regarding homosexuality, hold gay pride events and expand treatment for people with AIDS, it is becoming increasingly difficult to win such cases, say asylum applicants, U.S. lawyers and Latino activists... - Mexico City Amends Civil Code to Include Transgender Rights (2004).

Mexico City back gay unions (2006). - Mexico gay unions (2006): The legislative assembly in Mexico City has approved a bill recognising same sex civil unions for the first time in the country's history... Mexican gay rights protesters demonstrated while legislators voted. - Mexico City passes gay union law (2006). - First gay couple 'marry' in Mexico City (2007). - Lesbians form Mexico's first gay civil union (2007). - New law propels gay rights in Mexico (2007): .State moves boldly with civil unions as nation watches. - Mexico allows gay conjugal visits (2007). - Mexico court upholds gay adoption law. Is Mexico more tolerant than US? (2008): Mexico's Supreme Court upheld a law Monday that allows gay couples in the capital to adopt children. The gay adoption decision comes a week after the court upheld the constitutionality of gay marriage. - In Mexico, a Mass Gay Wedding (2001). - Same Sex Marriage for Mexico? (2002).  - Gays en México quieren matrimonio (2004, Translation).

Mexico City passes full marriage rights bill (2010). - Mexico City's gay marriage law still igniting debate (2010).  - Mexico's Supreme Court ruled Tuesday that all 31 states must recognize same-sex marriages performed in the capital, though its decision does not force those states to begin marrying gay couples (2010). - Iglesia critica aprobación de matrimonios homosexuales (2009, Translation): Arzobispo primado de México cuestionó duramente legislación que permite a parejas del mismo sexo casarse y adoptar hijos. - Mexico City: After “homosexual marriage” now “express divorce” (2010).

Gay unions catching on in northern Mexico? (2007) The new gay civil union law is under attack in Coahuila, even as legislators in neighboring Chihuahua are considering a similar law. The conservative National Action Party is taking its objection to the Mexican supreme court, arguing that the law approved in Coahuila last month is unconstitutional. At the same time, northern Mexico continues to be the unlikely vanguard of gay rights in the Americas, as legislators from the Revolutionary Democratic Party in Chihuahua introduced a gay union bill this week. - Bishop insists gay union law is anti-family. - The church loves the gays but only if they stop having sex. - Legal in Unlikely Places (2008): Now mature in the west, gay power is growing worldwide, even in the land of machismo.

Mexico City legalizes same-sex marriage, adoptions (2009). - Mexico Gay Adoption Law Upheld By Supreme Court (2010). - Mexico City mayor demands cardinal apologize over gay adoption spat (2010). - Archdiocese of Mexico City: Legalizing gay adoption doesn’t make it moral (2010). - Rejection of gay adoption is not a matter of tolerance, asserts Mexican archbishop (2010). - Church’s position on gay adoption remains firm (2010): The spokesman for the Archdiocese of Mexico City, Father Hugo Valdemar, clarified this week that recent statements by the archdiocese's assistant director for radio and television did not reveal conflict within the Church regarding homosexual adoption, reports Catholic News Agency. - The latest Mexican celebrity against gay adoption is even more ignorant than the previous one (2010). - Studies find Mexican majority rejects gay adoption (2010). - Adopción por homosexuales, ¿Qué interés prevalece? (2004, Translation). - Persiste en México rechazo a los gays (2001, Translation).

Effects of violence and discrimination on the mental health of bisexuals, lesbians, and gays in Mexico City (2005, Full Text: Translation): A questionnaire was administered to 506 bisexuals, lesbians, and gays attending support organizations and institutions. Eight forms of discrimination and fourteen forms of violence based on sexual orientation were researched. The study found the following prevalence rates: 39.0% suicidal ideation, 15.0% suicide attempts, 27.0% mental disorders, and 18.0% alcoholism.

Gay Catholic youth group ministers in Mexico with blessing of diocese (2007). - Gay Mexico City is Coming of Age (2007). - Being Gay in Mexico Today (2004). - Being gay in Mexico (2006). - Challenging stigma and discrimination in Mexico (2006). - La homosexualidad en México (2010, Translation): Muchos creen que las personas homosexuales viven sin ataduras ni límites, pero ¿qué hay detrás de cada historia?, ¿cómo lograron su autoaceptación y la de sus familias?. - Mexican bishop tells gays, lesbians: ‘The church is your home’ (2011).

Libre orientación sexual, un derecho humano (2004, Translation).  - Mexico's gays, lesbians trying to win rights (2004). - Lesbians and gays in Mexico at the end of the millennium (2000, Rights). - Homophobia in Mexico (2003): It never fails. After I've given a lecture or a course on homosexuality, explaining at length why it can no longer be considered an illness, the questions are always the same: "What are the symptoms?" "Can it be cured?" "How can one prevent it in one's children?" Even, occasionally, "Is it contagious?" I encounter these questions everywhere: in Mexico City and the provinces; on radio programs and university campuses; among ordinary people, psychology students, and health professionals. In Mexico there is still the assumption that homosexuality is a disease, as well as a social problem to be eradicated. Always there is the presumption that gay people are fundamentally different from "us normal people." - Menos pudor y más diversidad sexual vibran cada noche en México (2004, Translation). - En México, la diversidad sexual sufre de discriminación e intolerancia (2000, Translation). - Nueva Generación de Jóvenes Lesbianas (2004, Translation).

Coming Out: the Gay Experience in Mexico (2000). - Chavela Junks the Closet (2000): At age 81, the legendary Mexican singer Chavela Vargas, an icon of several generations of Latin American lesbians, has finally come out of her transparent closet. - M'shell, from Mexico to New Mexico (2001): M'shell moved to Albuquerque three years ago, and when she did she came out and found an identity she was happy with. We met up at the Frontier Cafe...

Election of Gay Legislator Marks Major Shift in Land of Machismo (1997): The sweeping changes in Mexico's political landscape include a striking first: for the first time anywhere in Latin America, an avowed homosexual has won a seat in the country's legislature. In an overwhelmingly Catholic, largely conservative, and strongly male-oriented society, the election of Patria Jimenez, with the full backing of her party, may mark the dawn of a new era for Mexico's gay citizens. - Macho Mexico elects a lesbian (1997). - Mexican Institute Offers Special GLB Summer Programs (2000). - Bush, Fox, Gays and Triumphant Love (2001). - Mexico City legislators propose gay rights law (2000).

Between June 1991 and February 1993, at least 11 gay men were killed in the locality of Tuxtla Gutierrez, state of Chiapas (1994). - Rights-Mexico: 495 Murders of Gays Go Unpunished. - Two Wealthy Gays Dead in Mexico City N/A. - A Life of Fear for Gays: For homosexual men in Mexico, every day brings threat of danger (2000). - Mexicans Unite in Effort to Stop Anti-Gay Terror N/A. - Gay purge in Mexico: Murders go unsolved and campaign against scum" gathers steam (2000). - Gay Hate Crimes on the Rise in Mexico N/A. - Police Officers Attack Gay Men, Lesbians and Transvestites in Monterrey, Nuevo Leon, Mexico (2001). - Mexico: Treatment of Homosexuals (1997). - Update 2000: Treatment of Homosexuals in Mexico (PDF Download). - Mexico: Fear for safety/torture (2004).  - Mexico (2006): A group called "movimiento lesbico-gay" in Mexico City; its leader and whether this group has been harassed or attacked; if yes, the nature of these attacks; whether past or present members were specifically targeted by police or city council members; whether there are any overtly homophobic city councillors in Mexico City; a list of gay and lesbian non-governmental organizations in Mexico City (2002-April 2005)... - Gay Unions Draft Statute Sparks Struggle in Mexico (1999). - Mexican Gays to Gather in Vera Cruz - Mexican Gays Meet in Sonora (1999).

Mexican Gay Man Wins Right to Flee Homeland (2000). - More Seek Asylum to Flee Anti-Gay Persecution (1999). - Gay Rights, Prejudice and Politics in Mexico (1997). - Law/Attitude Summary & Resources (1990s). - Asylum, Refugee, and Other  Protected Statuses (2000): "The United States Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit has ruled that gay men in Mexico with female sexual identities constitute a "particular social group" for purposes of establishing eligibility for asylum and withholding of deportation. The ruling comes on a petition for review of a decision of the Board of Immigration Appeals.  In reaching this decision, the court modified its interpretation of the term "particular social group" as a basis for meeting the definition of "refugee" under the Immigration and Nationality Act." - Canadian Government Gives Lesbians Asylum N/A.

ACLU Lauds Appeals Court Ruling Granting Asylum for Gay Man Persecuted for Sexual Orientation (2000). - Victory for Transvestite: Appeals Court Grants Gay Mexican Asylum (2000). - Mexico: Treatment of Sexual Minorities (1999). - Update: Treatment of Homosexuals in Mexico (2000, PDF Document).- Mexican gays march against intolerance (1999). - La opresión de minorías sexuales desde la inequidad de género (2004, Full Text. PDF Download. Translation. - Violence Against Bisexuals, Gays and Lesbians in Mexico City (2006). 

Gays from Australia, Mexico share concerns in N.Y. (1995): ""Things are changing," he says. "What I see in New York may come to Paris in five years." For Mexico City, make that 10 years. "The Jewish community has no idea of our group," says Luis, who didn't want to use his last name. "Practically nobody [in Mexico] thinks being Jewish and gay can co-exist."" - Una Cara del Homosexualism en Merida, Mexico, Yucatan. - The Construction of Male Homosexualities in Oaxaca, Mexico (2003). - Even the whales are gay down Mexico way (2002).

Cultural Insights: Gay identity in Mexico forged by popular singer Juan Gabriel N/A: "Juan Gabriel is a hero of popular music, and he has played a fundamental role in the creation of individual and group identities, in particular the formation of a gay identity in Mexico," says Mexican historian Rodrigo Laguarda... According to Laguarda, Juan Gabriel's success has obligated a traditional and rigid society to admit to a condemned and persecuted sexuality... Laguarda asserted that if anyone doubts Juan Gabriel's homosexuality, they can look it up in a book that was published in 1985 entitled, Juan Gabriel and I, written by Joaquín Muñoz Muñoz, which offers many details, including photographs of the [singer]. - Mexican singer Juan Gabriel engaged to younger man (2010).

Nahum Zenil: ...has long been an ardent supporter of gay rights in Mexico. He has projected himself both in his art as well as in his private life as one of the country's most adamant activists in both the cultural and political spheres. He has maintained a key role in the organization known as the Circulo Cultural Gay which, since the early 1980s, has..." - The colonial self: homosexuality and mestizaje in the art of Nahum B. Zenil. - Chronology of Mexican Gay History (2002). 

Way down Mexico way (1998): "As for the gay bars -- not really gay bars at all so much as good imitations -- they're pretty grim. As in Spain, homosexuality is still admirably latent in Mexico, lending the entire culture a certain homoerotic charge, but rendering gay expression somewhat superfluous. The difference between a straight Mexican and a gay Mexican, I was informed on more than one occasion, is two drinks..." - A Weekend's Respite in Mexico City (2001): "The other big night spot we hit was Zona Rosa, the center of gay bar life in Mexico City. The district, three subway stops away from Alameda Central in the opposite direction from the Zócalo, is actually a restaurant and nightclub district generally. Gay bars are an important part of the mix, however, and we were impressed by the visibility of the establishments - Pride flags out front and windows on the street - and of the patrons, many who strolled hand in hand down the main drags, Avenida Londres and Avenida Florencia. As with much of our stay in Mexico City, the crowds were predominantly locals..." - La Ley Azteca (2001).

Mexico's queerest corner: the author of Sliced Iguana (2005): Travels in Mexico finds a rare point on the globe where queer life is not only respected but revered: In the hazy glow of a Pacific afternoon two teams of transvestites are engaged in their weekly basketball match. They're wearing microskirts and crop tops and shrieking like schoolgirls. They run as badly as I do, kicking up their heels and flapping their arms around, and throw the ball to each other like it's a bomb about to go off. Their hairdos are miracles of invention and peroxide, with enough hair spray on them to stop a palm tree rustling in a hurricane. Two or three substitutes are lolling about on the sidelines, idly plucking their legs. When they notice me watching, they lift their chins and pose like swans. This scene takes place in Juchitan, a thriving commercial town on the Pacific coast of Mexico, on the Isthmus of Tehuantepec. It's not something you would see anywhere else in the country (or, possibly; any other). In the rest of Mexico, coquettish gay extroverts like these would be hounded out of town by the local machos: There would be shouts of putos or jotos (pools, faggots), wolf whistles, the odd missile... They refer to them as muxes, a Zapotec word, and though the phenomenon is widespread across much of the Tehuantepec peninsula, Juchitan, they tell me, is so famous for homosexuality it's known as "Muchitan." Traditionally, muxes dress, like the basil seller, as Juchitecas. They are honorary women and therefore the only men allowed to sell in the market. Or they wear pantalones like other men, the only giveaway a back-pocket handkerchief or a hibiscus in their hair.

CETLALIC is accredited by the Ministry of Public Education, State of Morelos, Mexico N/A: (Archive Link) (Home Page) "Winter Gay & Lesbian Program (January 4 - 17, 2003) For gays and lesbians interested in learning about G/L life in Mexico today. - Coming Out: The Gay Men's Experience in Mexico (June 15 - July 5, 2002) For all gay men intersted in learning about the real situation of the gay community in Mexico through the study of the language and cultural exchange. - In/Visibility: Lesbian Lives in Mexico (June 15 - July 5, 2002) Supported by the International Gay and Lesbian Human Rights Commission--IGLHRC, San Francisco. For all women interested in learning about lesbian life in Mexico today." - CETLALIC is accredited by the Ministry of Public Education, State of Morelos, Mexico.: Queer Program, Winter 2005. (Archive Link) - CETLALIC Social Justice Programs: 2008. - Learning Spanish... with a gay twist (2007): CETLALIC has been operating for 20 years and is accredited by the State of Morelos Ministry of Public Education. Mexico school offers special courses for gay and lesbian students. - Derechos De Los homosexuales: PDF Download.

Sobre Sexualidad y homosexualidad en el México Prehispánico (2010, Translation). - Aceptaron las culturas prehispánicas la homosexualidad (2005, Translation): Integración y tolerancia de la diversidad sexual en el México antiguo; contrario a lo que se piensa la homosexualidad era permitida, aceptada y bien vista entre las culturas precolombinas. - Mexico: Treatment of Homosexuals (to 1998). - Basic chronology of LGBT movement in Mexico.

Grinnell, Lucinda (2010). Challenging 'Moral Renovation:' Lesbian and Gay Activism and the 1982 Economic Crisis in Mexico. Paper presented at the 2010 Congress of the Latin American Studies Association, Toronto, Canada. PDF Download. We came here to denounce that in Mexico the economic crisis has accentuated the traditional repression against lesbians and homosexuals. By invoking morality as a method of order used to protect the citizens and thus making police repression a form of government, the Mexican government has instilled a climate of fear and insecurity amongst the people. In a rapidly deteriorating social situation, lesbians, gays, and young people in general are considered vagrants, prostitutes, and delinquents because we frequent certain public places, we have been converted into intolerable subjects and suffer violence, harassment, and extortion at the hands of the government. Police raids, which are unconstitutional, continue to be a daily reality that violates our most fundamental human rights.

Granados-Cosme, José Arturo (2009). La vivencia del rechazo en homosexuales universitarios de la Ciudad de México y situaciones de riesgo para VIH/sida [The experience of rejection in homosexual university students from Mexico City and risk situations for HIV/AIDS]. Salud Pública de México, 51(6): 482-488. Full Text (Translation) PDF Download. Abstract:  In-depth interviews were administered to homosexual men at a Mexico City university by means of a snowball technique...  The experience of homophobia as expressed by the interviewees resulted in psychological suffering, including sadness, fear, loneliness and suicidal behavior associated with risk situations for HIV/AIDS... Homophobia, translated into discrimination, contributes to an increased vulnerability to the sexual transmission of HIV. .

HIV/AIDS and sexual minorities in Mexico: a globalized struggle for the protection of human rights (2011). - Advances and challenges for the prevention and control of AIDS in Mexico (2010). - Implications of AIDS on the biography of men with homoerotics practices in Mexico City (2010). - The AIDS epidemics in Mexico up to 2008 (2010). - Impact evaluation of MSM HIV/AIDS prevention activities in Mexico - the use of quasi experimental methods for measuring behavioral change (2010). - 20% de los homosexuales en México tienen Sida; OMS (2011, Translation): La Organización Mundial de la Salud, elaboró informe sobre las probabilidades de que personas homosexuales o transexuales contraigan el virus del sida, por falta de prevención o discriminación.

Homosexualities, HIV, and Prostitution in Mexico (1995). -  Homosexual Role Preference and the AIDS Epidemic in Mexico and California (2000). - AIDS in Mexico (1998). - [Epidemic of AIDS in Mexico. Global analysis 1981-1996]. - El SIDA y las relaciones sexuales entre varones (1998, PDF Download, Translation). - Las púberes canéforas, la sensibilidad social y sexual en la nocturna ciudad de México (2000, Translation).

Pub Med Abstracts of HIV/AIDS Related Papers: - Sexual behavior patterns and HIV risks in bisexual men compared to exclusively heterosexual and homosexual men (2003). - [The homosexual transmission of HIV/AIDS in Mexico] (1995). - AIDS knowledge and sexual behavior among Mexican gay and bisexual men (1994). - AIDS-related illness trajectories in Mexico: findings from a qualitative study in two marginalized communities (1998).  - An HIV/AIDS prevention project for Mexican homosexual men: an empowerment approach (1997). - Sexual behavior and spread of AIDS in Mexico (1989). - [Internalized oppression and high-risk sexual practices among homosexual and bisexual males, Mexico] (2005).

Revealing Hidden Lives: Under Water in Mexico (2000): "It's complicated, living as a lesbian in Mexico..." - "A Very Queer Thing:" Mexico and the Quest for Economic Improvement (2002). - AIDS International Training and Research Program: Background Information on HIV/AIDS in Mexico. - AIDS Now a Migrant to Mexico (2000): Workers carry virus back to their villages, where it spreads to wives and girlfriends. Health officials believe 30% of the 4,300 to 16,000 cases originated in the U.S. The number is rising rapidly. - California and Mexico: HIV Infection Cases Surging Among Latinos; Gays in Border Towns Most at Risk (2002). - HIV infection cases surging among Latinos: Gays in border towns most at risk (2002). - Overview of HIV/AIDS in the Mexican Border States (2008): Homosexual and bisexual contact account for 28.4% and 20.2% respectively.

Pub Med Abstracts: - Cultural change, hybridity and male homosexuality in Mexico (1999). - Reflections on ethical problems encountered in field research on Mexican male homosexuality: 1968 to present (1999). - Assessment of non-response bias in a probability household survey of male same-gender sexual behavior (2000). - Juan Gabriel and audience interpretation. cultural impressions of effeminacy and sexuality in Mexico (2000). - [Clinical and epidemiological characteristics of severe poisoning in an adult population admitted to an intensive care unit] (1999). - Aztec homosexuality: the textual evidence (1993). - [Sexual behavior and drug abuse in homosexuals, prostitutes and prisoners in Tijuana, Mexico] (1992). - "Homosexual occupations" in Mesoamerica? (1991) - Gay liberation and coming out in Mexico (1989). - Mexican male homosexual interaction in public contexts (1985). - Mexican male bisexuality (1985).

Abstracts: - Bodily and Symbolic Constructions among Homosexual Men in Mexico (1998). - Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection in Mexico City: Rectal Bleeding and Anal Warts as Risk Factors among Men Reporting Sex with Men (1996, Full Text). - Ethnographic study of homosexual practices in men from Mexico (1990). - Cultural change, hybridity and male homosexuality in Mexico (1999). - Rethinking Sexual Initiation: Pathways to Identity Formation Among Gay and Bisexual Mexican Male Youth (2010).

Activo/Pasivo and Gay Mexican Male Homosexualities: A Social Class Analysis (2005, James Thing, Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Sociological Association) N/A: Abstract: In this paper I move towards offering a social class analysis of the construction of Mexican and Mexican American male homosexualities. Drawing from my own qualitative research on a multi-classed population of homosexual Mexican and Mexican immigrant men, I argue that, in Mexico, within middle-class communities the activo/pasivo model, which appears to have dominated at one time, has increasingly been replaced by an object-choice or gay model of homosexuality. Similarly, I argue that in Mexico within poor or working class communities, the activo/pasivo form continues to dominate. By focusing on impact of social class on homosexuality throughout this paper, I contribute to the empirical study of Mexican homosexuality which has nodded towards the importance of such an analysis, but which, to date, has not provided a thorough examination of the relationship.

Silva, Sócrates (2009). Observing Homosexual Encounters: The Joseph M. Carrier Papers at the ONE Archives. Paper presented at SALALM 54, Berlin, Germany. PDF Download. Abstract: Joseph Carrier is a pioneer anthropologist in the field of Mexican homosexuality studies. His groundbreaking book De los otros: Intimacy and Homosexuality among Mexican Men assembles ethnographic data about same-sex relations between men in Mexico as well as Latino men in Southern California gathered from 1968 through the 1980s. His papers, found at the ONE Gay and Lesbian Archives in Los Angeles, include correspondence, surveys, questionnaires, interviews, research notes, and conference materials documenting Carrier's anthropological field research. This presentation highlights materials from this collection, especially ephemera, and contextualize these items in terms of Carrier’s work.

Hernández MG, Herrera OB, Guzmán Cedillo YI, Fernández MAG (2010). Diseño de Estudio de Caso en Línea Como Propuesta Educativa Sobre la Homosexualidad Para Jóvenes de Bachillerato Universitario PDF Download. Translation. Abstract: This paper shows an experience of an on-line Case Based Learning (CBL) designed as an internet educational strategy from a constructivist perspective in order to promote meaningful learning and, in particular, to develop argumentative and problem solutions abilities accompanied by a respectful attitude to homosexuality as a part of Sexual Diversity in societies. The case designed is named "Ser gay ¿es ser diferente?" it is located in: http://www.psicol.unam.mx/tecnologias/casos/sergay/. The most important principles in this design are three: activation of knowledge previous, work of awareness-raising and based learning problem.

Christian gay(friendly) churches and organizations in Mexico. - En México, un tercio de los seminaristas son homosexuales (2005, Translation). - La Iglesia Católica respeta a homosexuales (2004, Translation). 

Finkler, Tamara (2008). Sexual diversity challenging HIV AIDS prevention in Oaxaca, Mexico. Master's Dissertation, Vrije Universiteit, Amsterdam. PDF Download.

Verduzco IL, Díaz-Loving R (2010). Medición de la identidad sexual en México. Revista Puertorriqueña de Psicología, 21: 133-154. PDF Download. Translation. Abstract: Sexual identity in Mexico has been approached theoretically from two distinct models. Sexual identity is considered to be central for individual development; influencing the way a person is, acts, relates, thinks and feels. Two models were used to develop a scale to measure sexual identity: Castañeda’s model, and the Generic Preference Model developed by the Mexican Institute of Sexology. The items for the scale were written based on the four areas of Castañeda’s model and were answered in a likert type scale of six options. The items were answered by 252 participants living in Mexico City with ages ranging between 14 and 77. A T Student test was used to determine the power of discrimination of each item; a Cronbach’s alfa was applied for reliability, and an orthogonal rotation factor analysis was used to determine de construct validity. A robust, conceptually clear 20 item scale emerged, with a reliability of 0.82 and an explained variance of 68%.

Guerrero RM (2002). Homosexualidad, Decheros Naturales y Cultura Popular: 1790-1820. La Ventana, 15: 263-312. PDF Download. Translation. En este texto analizo las relaciones entre la homosexualidad y la cultura popular en relación con los derechos humanos y la administración de justicia durante 1790 y 1820 en el territorio bajo la jurisdicción de la audiencia de Guadalajara.

Magnus Hirschfeld Archive for Sexology: Index Page: Mexico: - Homoerotic, Homosexual, and Ambisexual Behaviors. - Gender Conflicted Persons. - HIV/AIDS.

International Encyclopedia of Sexuality: Mexico. See: Homoerotic, Homosexual, and Bisexual Behaviors & Gender Diversity and Transgender Issues.

The Ultimate "Planet Out" Guide to Queer Movies (Country: Mexico). - Puerto Vallarta International Gay & Lesbian Film Festival (2010). - They Shine,,, On Being Gay in Morelos, Mexico (2002). - Broken Sky (2006): a beautiful, if overlong study of gay first love (Broken Sky). - Burn the Bridges (Quemar Las Naves) (2007) (Mexico) (Dir. Francisco Franco) (Language: Spanish) (Subtitles; English). - Biutiful (2010): a film by a renown Mexican director, Alejandro González Iñárritu. The film has two gay men characters that play a good part in the whole story. - Frida: a Mexican bisexual-themed movie about the life of Frida Kahlo, a surrealist painter and one of the most prolific in the 20th century (2002). - Y TU MAMA TAMBIEN / AND YOUR MAMA, TOO: a gay-themed Mecican film about two young teenagers on a road that they will never ever forget in their lives (2001).

Catholics Fight New Gay Movie (2011): The Catholic Church appealed to people not to go and see a new Mexican movie about gay parenting. In La Otra Familia (The Other Family), Mexican director Gustavo Loza deals with obstacles faced by gay couples with children. - Mexican documentary of gay Zapotec Indians to open Pride film festival. - Two gay movies festivals will take place in Mexico City during this week. (2009). - Gay Mexican Drama Wins Teddy Award at Berlin Film Festival (2009): Rabioso Sol, Rabioso Cielo (Raging Sun, Raging Sky).- Diego Luna percibe homofobia
 (2011, Tanslation):
Cock, la nueva puesta en escena del actor mexicano, se estrena mañana en el Teatro de los Insurgentes. José María Yazpik, Ilse Salas y Javier Díaz Dueñas son parte del elenco de una obra con humor y drama.

Behind the Rainbow: Queer Studies Easter Symposium 2007: Abstracts. - Homosexualidad en México (Wikipedia). - Esparza, Hortensia Moreno (2010). La construcción cultural de la homosexualidad. Revista Digital Universitaria, 11(8): 3-9. PDF Download.(Translation): Abstract: There is a crucial affinity between cultural and identity development. When a social sector distinguishes itself in regard to identity, it also requires the creation of is own culture to answer the questions about its definition, comprehension of the world and relationships with the others. En México, the process of construction of a homosexual culture has its own characteristics. The various dimensions—theater, film, cabaret, narrative, poetry, plastic arts, press, popular culture - where the meaning of homosexual identity is expressed has a strong link with the politic movement which gets closer and closer to a complete citizenship for people with sexualities that do not follow the norm.

LA MANZANA: Revista Internacional deEstudios sobre MasculinidadesVol 1(2) (2006): Introducción: Una diversidad que explorar… (Translation). - El cuerpo del héroe. Homofobia y homosociedad en El águila y la serpiente de Martín Luis Guzmán (Translation). - Trabajo sexual masculino y factores de riesgo en la adquisición de VIH/SIDA en Xalapa, Veracruz (Translation). - Gay identity after Foucault.. - Hacia una nueva sensibilidad social en el reconocimiento del “otro”: las minorías sexuales (Translation). - Los costos ocultos de la masculinidad (Translation). - -- Vol  2(3) (2007): Presentación del Número (Translation). - Identidades de género, sexualidad y violencia sexual (Translation). - Este tema no es científico: La violencia simbólica en el conocimiento y discurso académico (Translation).

Abrirán hotel de lujo para parejas homosexuales en el Caribe mexicano (Translation): Un hotel de lujo exclusivo para el turismo gay masculino será abierto en enero próximo cerca de la zona arqueológica de Tulum en la Riviera maya en el Caribe mexicano, dijo su director general, Patrick Lurenz. "El hotel es únicamente para hombres, es decir que sólo se aceptan parejas de homosexuales, no es para mujeres, aunque entre nuestro personal tenemos hombres y mujeres heterosexuales y todos han recibido capacitación especializada para evitar que nuestros huéspedes se sientan incómodos o discriminados", explicó el empresario hotelero..

Resource Links: - Comité Orgullo LGBT Pueblo (Translation). - Enkidu Magazine: Noticias: Sociedad y Cultura, Derechos Humanos y Desarrollo Social. - GLBTQ: Mexico. -  TG - Mexico Links. - Gay Mexico Map. - Gay Bar Listing

Global Gayz: Central America: Gay Mexico: a Three-Part Journey 2008. Mexico News Reports from 2000 to the Present. - ILGAMexico. - LGBT rights in Mexico. - Sodomy Laws.

MSMGF News Articles & Documents Resources. By Region & Country:  - Latin America: - Mexico

Blabbeando Blog: Latin American GLBTQ News / Commentaries: 2005 to Present.

Pridelinks. - Gayscape. - Google Directory. - QRD.

Gay Mexico: The Men of Mexico - 1998 - by Eduardo David. - Ferrari Guide's Gay Mexico - 1997 - by Richard Black. - Un amor que se atrevió a decir su nombre. La lucha de las lesbianas y su relacion con los movimientos homosexualk y feminista en America Latina - 2000 - by Dra. Norma Mongrovejo (Review). - De Los Otros : Intimacy and Homosexuality Among Mexican Men - 1995 - by Joseph Carrier (Review) (Review) (Review). - Mema's House, Mexico City: On Transvestites, Queens, and Machos - 1998 - by Annick Prieur (Abstract/Contents) (Abstract / Review) (Review) (Book Related) (This book is part of the "Worlds of Desire: The Chicago Series on Sexuality, Gender, and Culture" from the University of Chicago Press.) - Different Rainbows: Same-Sex Sexualities and Popular Movements in the Third World - 2000 - edited by Peter Drucker (Table of Contents). Contains: "Mexican pink" (P. 43-56) "Max Mejia takes a look at the history and the current issues of the movement in Mexico, a movement which he has been involved with since its early days in the late 1960s." - Mexican Masculinities (Cultural Studies of the Americas, V. 11)  - 2003 - by Robert McKee Irwin (Review) (Google Books). - Homosexuality, society and the state in Mexico - 1991 - by Ian Lumsden. - The Night is Young: Sexuality in Mexico in the Time of AIDS - 2002 - by By Hector Carrillo (Review) (Google Books). - Jóvenes corazones gay en la Ciudad de México (Translation) - 2005 - by Mauricio List Reyes

 

To "The SEARCH Section" For The Best Search Engines & Information Directories, The Searchable Sites to Locate Papers & Abstracts... and The Sites - Some Searchable - Where "Free Papers" Are Available! 
 

CARIBBEAN (Wikipedia)

Lesbian & Gay Studies Project Hosts First Conference on “Queer Caribbean (2005): "The University of Chicago Lesbian & Gay Studies Project is holding a two-day symposium on April 15 and 16 to explore the art and activism of queer Caribbean writers and artists. The symposium, entitled “Queer Islands?,” is the first academic gathering devoted entirely to gay and lesbian literature from the region and will include gay, lesbian, bisexual and transgender poets and authors from Jamaica, Trinidad, Cuba, Haiti, Puerto Rico and Suriname..." - Anti-gay Sentiment In The Caribbean (2011).  - Homophobia in the Caribbean varies widely (2011). - Gay, Lesbian and bisexual Nationals of several island-nations Seek Asylum (2011). - The Caribbean's first Gay & Lesbian Social Network launches from Jamaica (2008): Rainbowvibes.com. - On World AIDS Day 2009, sexual minorities are still criminals in the Caribbean (2009). - Caribbean Attitudes Toward Homosexuality Changing, But Violence Toward LGBT People Remains Common (2008). - .Caribbean can be chilly when it comes to welcoming gays (2007). - Gay cruises draw protests in Caribbean (2006). 

Gay backlash worry (2011, Alternate Link): Barbados is on the list of countries whose nationals are seeking asylum in the United States, claiming they are being persecuted because of their sexual orientation. And while Barbados’ Ambassador to the United States, John Beale, said the State Department had not raised the issue with him officially, he is concerned about it because of the damage which the claims can cause to the country’s image... Jamaica, Trinidad and Tobago, Guyana, St Vincent and the Grenadines, St Kitts and Nevis, Grenada, Dominica, the Bahamas and St Lucia are among the countries whose nationals consider the atmosphere at home so hostile to lesbians, gays, bisexuals and trans-gender (LGBT) people that they are seeking asylum in the United States.... “The atmosphere in many English-speaking Caribbean nations is absolutely oppressive,” said Victoria Neilson, legal director of Washington-based gay rights organization Immigration Equality. “Especially in the case of Jamaica, the hatred of gay people is beyond comprehension to me.”... - Punitive Measures and Discrimination on the Basis of Sexual Identity in Caribbean Countries (2010). - Denunciarán ante CIDH discriminación a homosexuales en países del Caribe (2010, Translation): Activistas homosexuales de las 15 naciones que componen la Comunidad del Caribe (Caricom) informaron este viernes que acudirán como bloque a la Comisión Interamericana de los Derechos Humanos (CIDH), en Washington, para denunciar discriminación en sus países.

Primero Puerto Rico en discusión de la homosexualidad (2011, Translation): “Me parece muy importante el trabajo que están haciendo en Puerto Rico. La discusión del asunto de la comunidad LGBT (Lesbiana, Gay, Bisexual y Transexual) ha avanzado, sin embargo el que se de dentro de una institución universitaria es una postura muy revolucionante”, afirmó de entrada la psicóloga social Gloria Careaga Pérez, profesora de la Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México (UNAM). “Representa un avance sustancial para América Latina que no se está dando en otras universidades (latinoamericanas)”, aseguró la investigadora que ha laborado en Costa Rica, Brasil y que actualmente es secretaria general de la International Lesbian and Gay Association (ILGA). - Presentación del documental: “Putas o peluqueras”. Historias de discriminación laboral de mujeres trans (2011, Translation): La sistemática exclusión social que viven las mujeres Trans en Colombia, su victimización por un sistema heteronormativo, patriarcal y prejuicioso y el alto nivel de violencia verbal, física y simbólica que viven en Colombia hombres y mujeres que libremente han optado transgredir el género y construir su identidad en relación a sus propias realidades, sentimientos y acciones; ha motivado el trabajo que en esta ocasión presentamos a la ciudadanía de la región Caribe para que en el marco del mes del “Orgullo Gay” (que se extiende por el reconocimiento de los derechos de lesbianas, bisexuales y hombres y mujeres Trans) se generen reflexiones, acciones y decisiones que garanticen al vida digna a las mujeres Trans de nuestra región...

Overlooked and at Risk: Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender Youth in the Caribbean (2010, Advocates For Youth): Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender (LGBT) individuals living in the Caribbean have had a long struggle for acceptance and equal rights within society. Many countries have laws against “buggery/sodomy”, “gross indecency,” or homosexual behaviour. Socio-cultural and religious taboos in many countries deny the existence of LGBT individuals and discourage any tolerance for their diverse sexual orientations and gender identities, regarding them as a threat to deep-rooted social norms of heterosexism and heteronormativity. LGBT people, including LGBT youth, undergo significant levels of stigma and discrimination and in extreme cases, acts of violence, which sometimes result in death. For the health and well-being of these young people, activists must work to end homophobia and transphobia in the region. - Rihanna Relaxes With Another Lesbian In Barbados (2011): All the famous women in Kabbalah are bisexual.. - Tell Rihanna: Promote and Advocate LGBT Rights in Barbados and Caribbean region! (Petition)

Latinoamérica y El Caribe: Campaña: "Por una mejor salud para lesbianas y bisexuales" (2010, Translation). - Call to eliminate homophobia in Latin America and the Caribbean [Llamado a eliminar la homofobia en América Latina y en el Caribe] (2009). - Líderes transexuales de Latinoamérica y el Caribe se reúnen en Buenos Aires  (2008, Translation): En el marco de la conmemoración de los primeros 15 años de la Asociación de Travestis, Transexuales y Transgeneros de Argentina (ATTTA) desde el 27 de este mes y hasta el primero de noviembre se reunirán en las instalaciones del Hotel Bauen, las lideres Trans de 18 países de Latinoamérica y el Caribe. Para conocer más sobre el evento, conversamos con Marcela Romero, presidenta del grupo argentino y coordinadora del encuentro.... - Servicios integrales de salud para trans en el Caribe (2010, Translation): Los actos sexuales entre personas del mismo sexo son penalizados en 13 de los 15 estados del Caribe anglosajón: una de las herencias de la colonización británica y sus leyes de sodomía. El panorama para la población transgénero en el Caribe hispano y francófono no es más halagüeño: la discriminación e invisibilización en los centro de salud, los altos grados de automedicación, la escasa información brindada sobre los procesos de reasignación sexual a personas transgénero masculinas y la negación de cobertura en los planes de salud, aun cuando son similares a las fases de conversión de las transgénero femeninas, son algunas de las denuncias realizadas por organizaciones de la región..

La situation des LGBT (lesbiennes, gays, bisexuels et transgenres) dans les territoires outremer (2011, Translation): Il existe un surcroît d’homophobie dans les îles d’outremer, comme aux Antilles par exemple, théâtre de violences. Ce sont de petits territoires, ce qui crée de grosses contraintes : pas d’anonymat possible, surveillance continue par les voisins, les parents, etc. Parmi les origines de l’homophobie aux Antilles, on peut citer le poids de la religion, l’héritage historique (société sexiste et homophobe). La lutte contre l’homophobie est d’abord celle de la visibilité : le silence est le premier ennemi, d’où le rôle des médias (RFO). Il est difficile aujourd’hui, voire impossible, de s’afficher en tant qu’homosexuel dans les Antilles françaises. Dans les autres Antilles, la situation est bien pire : en Jamaïque, l’homosexualité est pénalisée et coûte 10 ans de prison....L’Association An nou allé regroupe une vingtaine de membres seulement, car les gens ont peur de s’afficher. Le risque de violence est réelle et il n’est pas plus facile d’être lesbienne (et dans ce cas, la punition est plus vicieuse et le « problème » est réglé dans la sphère privée) que gay où la sanction est « publique ». Plus récemment, l’association An nou allé a demandé au ministère de l’Outremer une aide concrète, notamment pour mettre en place un service d’écoute et de conseils pour les homosexuels, pour pouvoir s’exposer et se revendiquer en tant que tel, avec l’aide des Droits de l’Homme. Rien n’a été fait. An nou allé demande la suppression de la sous-traitance associative car la situation est trop compliquée.

Stop discrimination against Blacks and Gays (2010): The same commission received information indicating that "12 countries of the English-speaking Caribbean still have laws criminalising sexual and intimate conduct between persons of the same sex". The commission named these countries as: Antigua and Barbuda, The Bahamas, Barbados, Belize, Dominica, Grenada, Guyana, Jamaica, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, and Trinidad and Tobago. According to the commission's report, sentences range from 10 years in prison or forced labour to life imprisonment for consensual sexual conduct between adults of the same sex. The commission received information indicating that the very existence of such laws perpetuates unwarranted stereotypes, is a cause for fear in the sexually diverse community, and fosters impunity for serious crimes committed against this community. Other detrimental factors that could be added to this are the spread of HIV/AIDS that could result from clandestine same-sex practices, the fear of seeing doctors, and the loss of a productive people who could make a real contribution to Caribbean development in the broadest meaning of that term.

Avrett, Sam (2011). Men Who Have Sex with Men and HIV in the Anglophone Caribbean. Arlington, VA: USAID’s AIDS Support and Technical Assistance Resources, AIDSTAR-One, Task Order 1. PDF Download. Download Page. PDF DownkoadMen who have sex with men (MSM)1 in the Anglophone countries of the Caribbean2 comprise a disproportionate share of the HIV epidemic (Baral et al. 2007; Cáceres et al. 2008a). Although only 4 of the 12 Anglophone Caribbean countries publicly collect HIV prevalence data among MSM, in 3 of these 4 countries (Jamaica, Guyana, and Trinidad and Tobago) researchers report an HIV prevalence of more than 20 percent among MSM (Joint U.N. Programme on HIV/AIDS [UNAIDS] 2008). This data clearly classifies MSM in the Anglophone Caribbean as a most-at-risk population (MARP) for HIV... Unfortunately, according to 2008 data for regions around the world, the Caribbean comes in second in legal and policy environments that pose barriers to HIV programming (Gruskin and Ferguson 2008). All Anglophone Caribbean governments criminalize sex between men, with the exception of Bahamas, where these “buggery laws” were repealed in 1991 and replaced with sanctions against sex acts committed in public places. Most Caribbean legal systems are characterized in a recent UNAIDS- sponsored report as “repressive” to homosexuality (Cáceres et al. 2008b). Governmental attempts to legislate sexual behavior, sexuality, gender identity, and gender expression are usually ineffective, and are often counterproductive to their professed aims, actually contributing to people’s vulnerability to HIV (Gruskin and Ferguson 2009).

Caribbean AIDS Outreach Hampered by Homophobia (2003, Alternate Link): Paradise for gay tourists, for locals, a closet. - La légalisation de l’homosexualité pour vaincre le sida dans les Caraïbes selon les experts (2008, Translaton). - L'Honneur des Makoumès (Translation): "Alors que l’homosexualité reste largement interdite dans les Caraïbes, en Martinique et en Guadeloupe, les mentalités commencent à changer." - Caribbean Nations Fight to Retain Anti-Gay Laws N/A. - Britain to Legalise Gay Sex in Colonies (2000). - UK scraps anti-gay laws in Caribbean (2001, Must Scroll): "Britain has scrapped anti-gay laws in its five Caribbean territories, acting after legislatures of the socially conservative and deeply religious islands refused to do so themselves. London’s move angered religious leaders, who say homosexuality is immoral and goes against the grain of their culture and religions.... It applies to Anguilla, the Cayman Islands, the British Virgin Islands, Montserrat and the Turks and Caicos." Caribbean Leaders Blast British Demands To Legalize Homosexuality (1999).

Les Antillais et l’homosexualité : l’appel à la tolérance des « Konxs » (2008, Translation): Interview de Julien Dalle, réalisateur de ce film guadeloupéen... Le Festival international cinéma et femme (Fémi), qui se déroule jusqu’au 2 février en Guadeloupe, présente en sélection officielle un film résolument décalé : Les Konxs. A travers son premier long-métrage, le réalisateur Julien Dalle désirait lancer un vibrant appel à l’acceptation de la différence. Pour faire passer le message, ce jeune homme de 28 ans a choisi le thème de l’homosexualité, encore mal vue aux Antilles. Il aborde au passage d’autres thèmes, comme le racisme en France et aux Antilles. Interview... Afrik.com : Pourquoi avoir choisi l’homosexualité pour parler du thème plus global de la tolérance ?  Julien Dalle : A l’époque, et bien avant les problèmes qu’il y a entre les artistes de dancehall et les homosexuels, je trouvais que c’était un bon thème pour mettre le feu aux poudres dans une bande d’amis et ensuite pour décliner tous les autres thèmes qui sont présents dans le film. Je pensais que ce thème était particulièrement intéressant parce que justement aux Antilles on a parfois certaines intolérances qui sont peut-être plus exacerbées et qui peuvent donner lieu à des comportements plus extrêmes. Je me suis dit que si cette bande d’amis de garçons machos avait un ami homosexuel parmi eux, les réactions pourraient être diverses et certaines pourraient être extrêmes...

Kempadoo K, Taitt A (2006). Gender, Sexuality and Implications for HIV/AIDS in the Caribbean: A Review of Literature and Programmes. Word Download.   3.3. Same-sex Relations: Despite the claim that homosexuality is unnatural to the Caribbean, since the 1990s a number of studies has appeared that identify same-sex relations.  For women, the main studies are by Gloria Wekker, Joan French and Michelle Cave, Makeda Silvera, M. Jacqui Alexander, Joycelin Clemencia, and Rosamund Elwin (see Alexander 1991; Silvera 1992; Wekker 1992; French 1995; Clemencia 1996; Alexander 1997; Elwin 1997; Wekker 2002 and also for reviews of many of these studies, see Kempadoo 2004 and Calixte 2005). For men, the prominent work on the Caribbean has been written by E. Antonio de Moya, Robert Carr, David Murray, Wesley Crichlow, Mark Padilla Thomas Glave, and Andil Gosine (de Moya and Garcia 1996; de Moya and Garcia 1999; Murray 2000; Herold, Garcia et al. 2001; Murray 2002; Carr 2003; Padilla 2003; Crichlow 2004; Glave 2005; Gosine 2005; White and Carr 2005; Murray 2006; Padilla forthcoming). Aside from establishing that same-sex relations exist in Suriname, Jamaica, Trinidad, Curacao, Martinique, the Dominican Republic and elsewhere, noticeable is the flexibility in the naming of homosexual practices and same-sex desire. Terms such as zammi or zami, mati, bullers, gais, lesbians, batty-men, man-royals, sodomites, wickers, kachaperas, chi chi men, bugarones, maricones, etc, are used in different ways in the literature. The range of terms represent a great heterogeneity in the practices, desires, self-identifications, and external views of the people who have sexual relations with or love persons of the same gender (de Moya and Garcia 1996; Alexander 1997; de Moya and Garcia 1999). Most notably, it is found that homosexual practice is not in the first instance claimed as identities, but rather as activity. The studies have also brought to the fore the commonality of bisexual behaviour of Caribbean populations. As various studies show most Caribbean “MSM” (Men who have Sex with Men) have sex with women (de Moya and Garcia 1996; Gosine 2005; White and Carr 2005; Padilla forthcoming). Similar claims are made for “Mati” in Suriname (Wekker 2002).

Why We Hate Homosexuals So Much (2005): As talk of decriminalizing homosexuality (to be more accurate, anal and oral sex between two men) sweeps through the Caribbean region and the resulting outrage ensues, I cannot help but ask myself, how come our people hate gays so much? Some would say, “We are islands that embrace Christian values and the bible says it is a sin.” However it is an oversimplified response. The most virulent homophobes are usually not Christian nor strict bible adherents. Dancehall artists famous for calling for violence against gays are certainly are no bible behaving saints. In fact most of us in general, do not abide by strict biblical law in everything, from eating pork to losing our temper to premarital sex to our Carnival revelry to gossip... Abused victims turn their fear of punishment and hatred of the punisher inward. As is often the case, the new convert becomes more of an extremist zealot than the one who converted him, especially when there is much at stake for him to gain if he proves his utter devotion and dire consequences if he does not. Therefore we began to fear and hate our own deities, earth and ancestral spirits. We began to fear and hate our skin colour and features. As for the minorities who love people of the same gender for whom many tribes had a special place in their traditions, we began to hate them too. To make matters worse, the morally hypocritical Europeans, used anal rape during the slave trade as a means of humiliation and emasculation especially on mentally and physically strong black men to break their spirit. Paedophilia was rampant in the new slave based colonies because a culture of repression, injustice, violence and hypocrisy always breeds dysfunctional predatory behaviours. Many young African boys were sexually abused by their white masters and especially picked because they had no recourse... - Anti-Gay Statements Sweep Caribbean (2008).

Homopobie et Société Antillaise (2007, Translation): Le Secrétaire général de l'association An nou allé David Auerbach Chiffrin a accordé une interview au magazine Hétéroclite... A travers son prisme hexagonale et eurocentrique, il nous offre une vision étonnante de la société antillaise... 1.  Peut-on parler d'une homophobie spécifiquement antillaise ?  On peut effectivement parler d'une «homophobie spécifiquement antillaise», dans la mesure où plusieurs facteurs spécifiques aux Antilles déterminent la perception globalement négative de l'homosexualité dans ces îles. Cependant, cette «spécificité» de l'homophobie antillaise ne doit pas justifier une «spécificité» de la tolérance de cette homophobie ! Cela va sans dire apparemment, mais c'est pourtant bel et bien l'argument qu'avance à demi-mot le Parti socialiste quand il refuse de sanctionner Marlène Lanoix, Raymond Occolier et Jules Otto, trois de ses membres éminents en Martinique et en Guadeloupe qui ont récemment, à des degrés divers, tenu des propos homophobes... 3. Quelle est l'audience de la «murder music» aux Antilles ? Pensez-vous que les médias sont trop complaisants à l'égard de ses représentants ?  L'audience du dancehall, du reggae et du ragga est considérable aux Antilles. Les jeunes reprennent des refrains d'une violence sidérante, dont les interprètes sont complaisamment diffusés par les radios et les télés locales : Trace FM, Canal + et Canal Sat Caraïbes ont ainsi récemment retransmis un concert d'Admiral T. À cette occasion, France-Antilles a même publié une interview de ce dernier où il se disait «attaqué» et «agressé» par les associations LGBT ! Toutefois, ce même quotidien reprend régulièrement les informations émises par An Nou Allé, comme d'autres radios ou télévisions locales, notamment RFO. Le paysage audiovisuel antillais se partage donc entre le pire et le meilleur, semblable en cela au reste du paysage audiovisuel français...

In the Caribbean, anti-gay bigotry thrives (2007): Meanwhile, on the tiny islands of Guadeloupe and Martinique, French territories in the eastern Caribbean, rampant homophobia goes unchecked... So it is that the Guadeloupean pop singer Admiral T and his musical confrère from Martinique, Lieutenant, have made big names for themselves regionally by peddling vicious, anti-gay "entertainment." In fact, last year, in an event funded in part by the government of Paris, Admiral T was awarded a Music Césaire (something like a Grammy Award in the U.S.) as a noteworthy performer in the new-discoveries category. Admiral T is best known for his song from a few years ago titled "Makoumé" (which means "homosexual" in the local creole). In it, "he clearly announces his hatred against homosexuals, inviting his listeners to 'burn them like cigarette butts.'" In the song, Admiral T declares that he has "come to burn the fags who hang out near city hall," and that the targets of his bigotry are "going to suffer, suffer; they're going to be gassed, gassed." He advises his listeners: "Instead of aiming your gun at your brother, aim it at them..."...

Les homosexuels de la Caraïbe restent dans le placard (2008, Translation): Si les avancées des scientifiques arrivent à faire du sida une maladie chronique, la double stigmatisation - homosexualité/sida - demeure lancinante pour la Caraïbe, après l'Afrique, la région la plus touchée par le virus du sida. En Haïti et à la Jamaïque, la vie des hommes ayant des rapports sexuels avec d'autres hommes demeure cachée. Et pour cause... En Haïti, à Guyana, à la Barbade, un peu partout dans les Antilles, les hommes ayant des rapports sexuels avec d'autres hommes restent encore dans le placard, autrement dit hésitent encore à s'assumer, voire s'afficher. « Si le taux de prévalence diminue d'une manière générale dans la Caraïbe, les indices ont subi une nette augmentation dans des secteurs vulnérables, comme les travailleuses du sexe, les hommes ayant des rapports sexuels avec d'autres hommes, les prisonniers et les utilisateurs d'héroïnes », constate Peter Figueroa, responsable de la division épidémiologie et de sida au secrétariat de Santé de la Jamaïque. Les causes, selon l'expert, plongent leurs racines dans des valeurs sociales et/ou culturelles de certains pays de la Caraïbe. « En Haïti, ce sont seulement les pratiquants du vaudou qui tolèrent les homosexuels », fait remarquer un participant haïtien aux débats, parfois houleux, sur la stigmatisation que subissent les homosexuels... - Haïti, Martinique, Guadeloupe... A-t-on le droit d'être homosexuel/le aux Antilles ?: Samedi 17 mai, Journée mondiale de lutte contre l'homophobie, Tjenbé Rèd vous invite à une conférence-débat organisée à l'initiative d'Amnesty International (2008, Translation).

Caribbean Vulnerable Comunities: MSM (2010): The Caribbean is well known for its homophobia but remains the home to a large community of men who have sex with men, some of whom identify as gay, others who identify as bisexual, and still others who accept neither label. Countries such as the Dominican Republic, Curaçao and Trinidad and Tobago are home to standing gay bars and clubs as well as NGOs serving the gay and bisexual populations. Other countries, such as the smaller island-states of the Organisation of Eastern Caribbean States (OECS) have smaller and more underground groups. In recent years, however, there has been increasing mobilisation of men who have sex with men in these territories... The situation for young men who have sex with other men is particularly dangerous because of the pressure to conform to heterosexuality often combined with isolation from family and community. - Universal access in the Caribbean must include men who have sex with men (2010).

Push for Gay Law: Caribbean group to present proposal to region's attorneys general (2008): PANCAP, the grouping mandated to co-ordinate the regional response and mobilise resources to address the AIDS pandemic, said it was crucial for Caricom countries to adopt the proposed legislation if the region is to effectively offer intervention programmes to tackle the spread of the disease in the Caribbean, which has the second highest prevalence rate next to Sub-Saharan Africa. PANCAP director Carl Browne said a number of the region's laws were either implicitly or explicitly discriminating against certain vulnerable groups, such as sex workers and gay men. He said they have since had to assess what the law says and how the people feel... Brown, however, told the Observer that the wording of the policy does not say "decriminalise", instead it is phrased as allowing people the right to be of the sexual orientation they choose. "It might be easier to get sex work to be decriminalised," he said. "However, it will be harder for homosexuality as no attorney general may want to take the responsibility to return to their country and say I approved it."

The Not-So Diverse Caribbean Workplace (2008): For over two centuries, Blacks, women, Indians, Chinese, Rastafarians, Amerindians and others were systematically discriminated against in the Caribbean. Over time, a greater tolerance of differences has subsumed much of this prejudice and the society is demonstrably better as a result.  The issue of gays in our workplaces is one that we would just rather not talk about in public. This is the topic that we hope would just go away and leave us alone. Most of us in the Caribbean experience deep feelings ranging from hostility to sympathy on the topic. It's something I should probably not be writing about... Global opinion is growing: the Caribbean is increasingly seen as one of the least inclusive, intolerant and unsupportive regions of the world as it relates to the matter of “differences.” The term “difference” is a fairly new one to the Caribbean workplace and it generally applies to obvious aspects such as race, gender, age, religion, physical ability, etc. However, our international reputation is largely being tainted by our strident relationship to gays and homosexuality...

Act of Atonement: Spain apologizes to queers (2005): An act of atonement to Freddy Mercury, to Federico García Lorca, to all the lesbians and gay men tortured, martyred, degraded and silenced in the history of Spain. And to those in Latin America, where for centuries Spain exported the Inquisition, clericalism, intolerance and misogyny that continue to plague those societies. Each Latin American country, from Chile to Cuba to Brazil, should offer its own, equally explicit, public act of atonement. It does not matter that the worst abuses may have occurred in the past, or under a different government or ideology, or because of an "error" or old values. They happened. And to a large extent, continue to happen. They silenced us (Chile), they sent us to work camps and psychiatric hospitals (Cuba), and they still kill us like dogs in the streets (Brazil). An official and public act of atonement of each nation and each state, and each generation still living in each of our Latin American countries is owed to all of the gay men, lesbians, bisexuals, and transgender people living, dead, and to come. It is necessary. We have to demand it. 

Homosexual aspects of the HIV/AIDS epidemic in the Caribbean, a public health challenge for prevention and control (Word Download) - Homosexual aspects of the HIV/AIDS epidemic in the Caribbean, a public health challenge for prevention and control (2000, PowerPoint Presentation): M. De Groulard, G. Sealy, P. Russell-Brown, H-U. Wagner, C. O'Neil3, B. Camara (1CAREC / PAHO / WHO, 16-18 Jamaica Boulevard, PO Box 164, Port of Spain, Trinidad And Tobago, 2CARE, Port of Spain, Trinidad And Tobago, 3CAREC/PAHO/WHO, Port of Spain, Trinidad And Tobago); "Background: Men play a key role in HIV transmission in the  Caribbean, being the group most affected (AIDS sex ratio 2:1).  Sexual contacts between men appear to be a major contributor.  Homosexuality is a criminal offence, highly stigmatised and perceived  as a delinquent behaviour. Individuals are driven underground,  social acceptance is gained in adopting a visible heterosexual  lifestyle. Accessing social and behavioural data is a public  heath challenge in small island communities. Methods: The qualitative research combines focus groups and in-depth  interviews. Target groups are openly gay men, closeted and young  gay and bisexual men. A gay interviewer collected information  over 2 periods, Oct-Nov 95 and Mar-Apr 97, in 9 Caribbean islands.  Interviews and group discussions were audio taped. Transcripts  were analysed by independent researcher and reviewed by investigator. Results: There are several communities of MSM. Social status  mediates ability to live a normal life. Communication is limited.  Younger and more educated MSM have a stronger sense of identity.  There is a lack of trust within the group, and towards the wider  community. The coexistence of a public and a private face presents  a major challenge for AIDS prevention. There are inter-country  differences in the acceptance of MSM. Conclusions: The rising HIV prevalence in the Caribbean is the  second in the World. A heterosexual epidemic coexists with a  homosexual epidemic. High stigma of homosexuality has driven  gay men to adopt bisexual lifestyle where underground homosexuality  coexists with socially accepted visible heterosexual life. The  social context of the homosexual community is dominated by lack  of trust and communication, resulting in poor dissemination of  information and unsafe sex practices. This impacts on the wider  community through bisexual practices." - Poverty, drug abuse fuel Caribbean AIDS outbreak. (1998, Alternate Link): Hatred and fear of homosexuals, together with a fear of losing tourism revenue, drove many high-level policymakers in the Caribbean to ignore the HIV/AIDS in its infancy. 

Caribbean Epidemiology Centre (CAREC/PAHO/WHO): Eighteen Years of the HIV/AIDS Epidemic in the Caribbean:  A Summary (2001, Power Point Presentation): "HIV Seroprevalence: Female Sex workers: 3-45%, Patients with STIs: 2-21%, Pregnant women: 1-12%, MSM: 18-40%... Factors Driving the Epidemic: Social, Cultural, Behavioural: Dysfunctional gender relations, Lack of life-skills for sex education, Cultural and religious taboos, Discrimination & stigmatisation of people with HIV, Sexual  norms, e.g. insufficient condom use, Commercial sex work due to  poverty, Criminalisation of sex work and homosexuality. Substance abuse: alcohol, cocaine -> risky behaviour..." - Caribbean Programme: Sex Work HIV Prevention Programme Start-Up Assessment Trip Report (2003, Word Download N/A) Maybe available here.

Legalize Homosexuality! Beat Caribbean AIDS! Say Activists (2008): Homosexuality must be legalized or else AIDS will never be beaten in the Caribbean region, experts at an AIDS conference in Mexico city said Thursday. - Caribbean should decriminalize homosexuality to help fight spread of HIV, Lewis says (2009: The MSM community, "often disparaged, abused and certainly discriminated against, in order to seize legitimacy has sex with women," thus spreading the virus further into the general population. - HIV fears put repeal of homophobic laws on the table for Caribbean nations (2010): On World Aids Day there is some hope for gay rights supporters with the St Kitts and Nevis prime minister urging fellow leaders to change their stance... Examples abound of government-supported homophobia in the Caribbean. In a recent UN resolution to condemn arbitrary killings based on various identity features, nearly all Commonwealth Caribbean states voted to remove "sexual orientation" as a category. With the exception of the Bahamas, former British colonies of the region all retain laws criminalising male homosexuality. These laws either date back to, or are a literal transplantation of the Victorian 1861 Offences against the Person Act. Offences of "buggery" or anal sex and "gross indecency" meaning any sexual intimacy between men, remain on the books...

Avrett, Sam (2011). Men Who Have Sex with Men and HIV in the Anglophone Caribbean. Arlington, VA: USAID’s AIDS Support and Technical Assistance Resources, AIDSTAR-One, Task Order 1. PDF Download. Download Page.  Men who have sex with men (MSM)1 in the Anglophone countries of the Caribbean2 comprise a disproportionate share of the HIV epidemic (Baral et al. 2007; Cáceres et al. 2008a). Although only 4 of the 12 Anglophone Caribbean countries publicly collect HIV prevalence data among MSM, in 3 of these 4 countries (Jamaica, Guyana, and Trinidad and Tobago) researchers report an HIV prevalence of more than 20 percent among MSM (Joint U.N. Programme on HIV/AIDS [UNAIDS] 2008). This data clearly classifies MSM in the Anglophone Caribbean as a most-at-risk population (MARP) for HIV... A notable lack of human rights protection in the AnglophoneCaribbean also impedes efforts to improve the health of MSM (Waters forthcoming)...

Concerns for Black Gay/Bisexual HIV Raised to Global Platform at Dominican Republic Conference (2011): Much of the recent HIV/AIDS data on Black gay and bisexual men— or, "men who have sex with men"  (MSM)   in public health jargon—has been sobering. A recent Centers for Disease Control study of more than 8,100 MSM found almost one in three Black MSM are HIV positive, compared to only 16 percent of white gay/ and bisexual men.  The numbers were even higher in some cities. Just like the recent reports of soaring black MSM seroconversions in Chicago, New York and other cities, the national data on barely made a “blip” on the local news.  But as the rate of HIV infections among Black MSM in America and the Caribbean continue to skyrocket,  their specific health needs  reached a global  platform at the 2011 Black Diaspora MSM Consultation in Punta Cana, Dominican Republic. The weekend conference was held from March 31 to April 3 and organized by the Black AIDS Institute, the African & Black Global Diaspora Network (ABDGN) and the Black Gay Men’s Network, a professional leadership community.  The conference brought together 40+ researchers, policy makers, HIV/AIDS prevention advocates and physicians from four continents to organize around opportunities and threats Black MSM are facing across the Diaspora...

Tropical Medicine Central Resource: The Imaging of Tropical Diseases (2000, Amazon): "Cuba and the Caribbean: A large screening study within Cuba has revealed that the overall prevalence of infection in that country is extremely low, with higher rates in visiting foreigners and in homosexuals. Those infected are isolated to contain the epidemic. Other Caribbean countries differ greatly from Cuba. In these countries transmission appears to be primarily homosexual, bisexual, and heterosexual, with a minor contribution of intravenous drug abuse. Bisexuality is generally believed to be common in the Caribbean because homosexuality is not well tolerated; therefore many homosexuals are married with families. Subsequent spread to the general heterosexual population has occurred, and pediatric AIDS has resulted. Further spread of HIV in the community has been promoted by cultural patterns of multiple sexual partners and a propensity for unprotected sex. Quinn's study of 4000 women attending a prenatal clinic in Port au Prince, Haiti, demonstrated a 9.2% HIV infection rate. High rates of infection have also been seen in the English-speaking Caribbean countries such as the Bahamas and Bermuda..."

Caribbean Anti-Violence Project N/A (Archive Link, Reference, Reference: Caribbean Queers Take On Homo-Haters. Website Hopes To Shed Light On Pandemic of Violence: The Website does not exist anymore): Use this site to report gender, sexual and HIV-related harassment, discrimination, bullying, assault, violence and hate crimes.  The Caribbean Anti Violence Project is a regional initiative based in the HIV Education Unit at the University of the West Indies. The project is supported by a coalition of citizens and groups who share a vision of a kinder, fairer and more caring society. We oppose all forms of victimization, prejudice and discrimination. - Charting the Caribbean: Which islands are gay-friendly, which aren't? (2006, Alternate Link).

How homophobic is the Caribbean? Find out where you can be gay and "feel irie" on your next island hop: The closest Caribbean approximations of gay life will probably be found-ironically enough--in American territories such as Puerto Rico or St. Croix, in the U.S. Virgin Islands, or on French or Dutch-speaking islands, including the "ABCs" (Aruba, Bonaire Bonaire (bônĕr`), island (1990 est. pop. 11,000), 112 sq mi (290 sq km), in the Netherlands Antilles, West Indies. Kralendijk is the chief town. Tourism is the economic mainstay, though salt mining is also a significant industry. The island is known for its fine beaches, skin diving, and pink flamingos., and Curacao), St. Maarten, and Guadeloupe. But even in these chore hospitable destinations, resorts and nightlife that are gay-specific or-exclusive tend to be few and far between, perhaps with the exception of Puerto Rico's capital, San Juan. However, it is possible to be "gay" and to "vacation" (if not "gay-vacation" per se) happily and safely in much of the Caribbean--provided you're realistic about your expectations and reconcile yourself to the cultural, social, and political realities of your island destination.

Campbell K (2006). Reading Queer Caribbean Identities: Faizal Deen’s land without chocolate and the Gay Caribbean Canon. Postcolonial Text, 2(2). Full Text. Full Text. The label of "homosexual" or "sodomite" in the Caribbean today remains both a marker of absolute difference and a magnet for violence. It is partly for this reason that there is very little gay Caribbean literature being produced; such a literature can often only safely be produced from exile, and even then the exilic writer is forced to negotiate a history of cultural associations which inform even his own perceptions of his sexuality. Nevertheless, gay Caribbean writings have begun to appear with increasing frequency, from the character of Harry/Harriet in Michelle Cliff's No Telephone to Heaven (New York: Plume, 1987), to Lawrence Scott's Witchbroom (London: Heinemann, 1993) and Aelred's Sin (London: Allison & Busby, 1998), to H. Nigel Thomas' Spirits in the Dark (Toronto: Anansi, 1993) and Behind the Face of Winter (Toronto: TSAR, 2001), to Patricia Powell's A Small Gathering of Bones (London: Heinemann, 1994) and Me Dying Trial (Boston: Beacon Press, 2003).

Our Caribbean: A Gathering of Lesbian and Gay Writing from the Antilles - 2008 - edited by Thomas Glave (Interview with editor): Spotlight on gay writers from across the Caribbean (2010): The first book of its kind, Our Caribbean: A Gathering of Lesbian and Gay Writing from the Antilles Published by Duke University Press, 2008, is an anthology of lesbian and gay writing from across the Antilles. Glave has gathered outstanding fiction, nonfiction, memoir, and poetry by little-known writers together with selections by internationally celebrated figures such as José Alcántara Almánzar, Reinaldo Arenas, Dionne Brand, Michelle Cliff, Audre Lorde, Achy Obejas, and Assotto Saint. The result is an unprecedented literary conversation on gay, lesbian, bisexual, and transgendered experiences throughout the Caribbean and its far-flung diaspora. Many selections were originally published in Spanish, Dutch, or creole languages; some are translated into English here for the first time...

Development and Same-Sex Desire in Caribbean Allegorical Autobiography (2005, PDF Download): Shani Mootoo’s Cereus Blooms at Night, and Jamaica Kincaid’s Annie John and Lucy.

Murray DAB (2009). Bajan Queens, Nebulous Scenes: Sexual Diversity in Barbados. CRGS: Caribbean Review of Gender Studies, 3. PDF Download. Excerpt: .One does not have to look far these days to find a position on sexual alterity in the Caribbean. For once, popular culture and academia are, for the most part, in agreement on this topic: The Caribbean is generally depicted as a region whose peoples are not tolerant of homosexuality (Reddock 2004). Men are socialized to think of any form of effeminacy or “soft” behavior as weak and deplorable - accusations of “battyman,” chichi man, buller, macoume, or anti-man are considered to be the worst insults possible (Chevannes 2001, Crichlow 2004, Dann 1987, Lewis 2003, Murray 2002). Certain genres of Caribbean music are gaining an international reputation for being aggressively homophobic (Gutzmore 2004, Mohammed 2004). Caribbean social and political organization has been identified as heteronormative and patriarchal (Alexander 1997, Kempadoo 2004). To sum up, it appears that any expression of sexuality outside patriarchal heterosexuality is uniformly unwelcome. On the other hand, the long-term and widespread presence of sexual diversity in the Caribbean is increasingly well documented and analyzed (i.e. Glave 2008, Kempadoo 2004, Murray 2002, Padilla 2007, Wekker 2006).

Kempadoo, Kamala (2009). Caribbean Sexuality: Mapping the Field. CRGS: Caribbean Review of Gender Studies, 3. PDF Download. Abstract:  Caribbean sexuality is both hypervisible and obscured. That is, it is celebrated in popular culture as an important ingredient in Caribbean social life and flaunted to attract tourists to the region, yet is shrouded in double entendre, secrecy and shame. In this article, I present a review of the main trends in studies of Caribbean sexuality, arguing that while there are few exclusive studies on the subject there is much we can draw upon for insights into Caribbean sexual relations, sexual expressions and sexual identities. Drawing from published as well as “grey” materials, this article points out that Caribbean sexuality is often perceived and analysed as linked to force and (domestic) violence against women and children, sexually transmitted infections (i.e. HIV and AIDS), and economic imperatives. It is also widely accepted as attached to heterosexuality and gendered imbalances of power, as well as to men’s sexual agency. Studies of same-sex relations, transactional sex, prostitution and sex tourism suggest, however, a far greater complexity, which demands more elaborate and complicated understandings of sexuality. Moreover, given the range of sexual practices and relations that appear in the studies, we argue here for a conceptualization of sexuality as semiautonomous from gender, and begin to map the contours of a specific area that can be designated as Caribbean sexuality studies.

Serrano-García I, Cintrón-Bou F, Rodríguez YR, Acosta-Pérez E, Walters-Pacheco K (2005).  Una mirada a la sexualidad desde el Caribe: Implicaciones de su estudio para las Ciencias Sociales. Revista de Ciencias Sociales, 14: 10-21.  PDF Download. Translation. Abstract: Sexuality has been defined as the set of biological, psychological and social characteristics that contribute to an individual’s identity and to his/her behavior as a sexual being. This subject is important, however, it is socially evaded and recibes scant academic priority. The absence of discussion and analysis of this theme is one of the factors that contributes to the high indexes of sexually transmitted diseases and HIV/AIDS in the Caribbean. Given that its study does not usually incorporate a developmental or multidisciplinary approach, this special issue includes essays by various professionals who have researched sexuality, as well as the ethical implications of working with homosexuals. It is intended to facilitate a reflection about research in sexuality from a critical, developmental and Caribbean perspective and to promote the knowledge on this subject within our cultural context.

Toro-Alfonso J, Varas-Díaz N (2005).Exclusión e internalización del estigma en hombres que tienen sexo con hombres en la República Dominicana: Implicaciones para la salud en América Latina y el Caribe. PDF Download. Translation.

Calixte, Shana L (2005). Things Which Aren't to Be Given Names: Afro-Caribbean Diasporic Negotiations of Same Gender Desire and Sexual Relations. Canadian Woman Studies. 24(2/3): 128-137. PDF Download. For this paper, I am specifically speaking of the Caribbean diaspora located in Canada and the U.S. (and to a lesser extent, the UK) but which speaks more specifically to the experience of Afro migrants from the Caribbean, who share a specific experience of colonialism and forced displacement, as well as newer migrations to North America - in the era of globalization (see Henry; Anderson; Chamberlain)... It may be that eluding a naming has provided the best (in)visibility of Afro-Caribbean women's same gender desire. As Monika Reinfelder states, "The absence of a label that can be used against women can protect their ability to relate to each other sexually" (3). This (un)naming, speaking one's desire in ways that do not necessitate a verbal appellation of that desire, allows women the freedom to engage in sexual relations with other women without necessarily having to be stigmatized by a western-associated label, such as "lesbian." ... The global gay,  while theoretically imagined to encompass the experiences of those living in tre West, still does not "fit" as an explanatory model for diasporic Afro-Caribbean wornen...

La Fountain-Stokes, Lawrence (2007). LGBTT and Queer Studies in the Caribbean. PDF Download.  Scholarship on lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender and transsexual (LGBTT) and queer issues in the Caribbean is enormously varied and heterogeneous, and has not fully crystallized into a cohesive whole. This has to do in part with the great diversity and complexity of the region, in which numerous languages are spoken (English, Spanish, French, Dutch, Papiamentu, and a variety of creoles and dialects) and where colonial and postcolonial ties to different metropoles result in different migration patterns and intellectual traditions... One possible way to appraise the current status of queer/LGBTT Caribbean studies is to focus on a recent academic conference, that of the Caribbean Studies Association (CSA) - specifically its meeting 2006 held in Port of Spain, Trinidad, from May 29th to June 2nd of. The 2006 CSA conference was a landmark event in terms of the number of presentations on topics pertaining to LGBTT and queer Caribbean issues, and was an important achievement in the light of the region's particular difficulties regarding non-heteronormative sexualities....

Our Caribbean: A Gathering of Lesbian and Gay Writing from the Antilles - 2008 - edited by Thomas Glave (Interview with editor) (Review) (Review) (Google Books). - UWI Cave Hill Campus of Barbados "Breaking Sexual Silences" & Author Thomas Glave (2010, YouTube): Thomas Glave is a professor at Binghamton University in NY, he is a co-founder of J-Flag {Jamaican Federation of Lesbians And Gays} is author of the collection "The Torturer's Wife" but here is reading an excerpt of the anthology 'Our Caribbean - a gathering of Lesbian & Gay writing from the Antilles' of which he is the editor, this is a portion from Makeda Silvera's essay 'Man Royals & Sodomites' (UWI's Evelyne Callaghan gave permission for recording of the night's lecture to ease distribution and dissemination).

Images of ambiente: homotextuality and Latin American art, 1810-today - 2000 - by Rudi Bleys (Google Books).

Commonwealth Caribbean Countries that Crinimalize Homosexuality (2011):  All Commonwealth Caribbean countries except The Bahamas continue to criminalise the LGBT community. The laws which criminalise the LGBT community in the majority of the commonwealth Caribbean countries are a product of previous colonial legislation which is still in force. Most Caribbean countries use the 1861 Offences Against the Person Act as a means of criminalising the LGBT community or have penal codes that contain ‘sodomy’ provisions similar to those found in the Offences Against the Person Act. Although several countries are signatories to key international treaties that seek to protect individual’s human rights, the presence of laws which criminalise homosexuality means that these states are failing in their obligation to protect basic human rights.

Homosexuality in the Caribbean: crawling out of the closet - 2007 - by Claude J. Douglas. -  Homosexuality in the Caribbean (2008): Professor Claude Douglas’ new book: ‘Homosexuality in the Caribbean-Crawling out of the Closet,’ is simultaneously a sociological analysis and an erudite commentary on sexuality as a critical function of human identity. His terrible burden comes as a priceless gift. He discusses a taboo issue: the maneuvers of homosexuality within the English speaking Caribbean... - Book suggests homosexuality will be accepted in Caribbean soon (2008). - The gay uprising in the Caribbean (2008).

Tongues on Fire: Caribbean Lesbian Lives and Stories - 1997 - edited by Rosamund Elwin: In Tongues on Fire, Caribbean lesbians speak zami desire honestly and eloquently, loudly and clearly. Narrating their life stories, they claim what has never been acknowledged - lesbian history and continuity in the Caribbean. And diasporic writers collectively honour that history and continuity in fiction sweet with intimacy, sensuality, and memory. Like the lives and stories of Caribbean lesbians, Tongues on Fire is unique. Rosamund Elwin has put together a fine collection that includes well-known writers such as Michelle Cliff, Shani Mootoo, and Makeda Silvera.

Sex and the Citizen: Interrogating the Caribbean - 2011 - edited by Faith L. Smith. Abstract: ex and the Citizen is a multidisciplinary collection of essays that draws on current anxieties about “legitimate” sexual identities and practices across the Caribbean to explore both the impact of globalization and the legacy of the region’s history of sexual exploitation during colonialism, slavery, and indentureship. Speaking from within but also challenging the assumptions of feminism, literary and cultural studies, and queer studies, this volume questions prevailing oppositions between the backward, homophobic nation-state and the laid-back, service-with-a-smile paradise or between giving in ignominiously to the autocratic demands of the global north and equating postcolonial sovereignty with a “wholesome” heterosexual citizenry. Contents.

Foster GM (2009). Translating (Black) Queerness: Unpacking the Conceptual Linkages Between Racialized Masculinities, Consensual Sex, and the Practice of Torture. Souls, 11(2): 143-166. PDF Download. Abstract: This essay argues that the 2005 documentary Ring of Fire: The Emile Griffith Story uses narrative strategies that link it with the 2004 Abu Ghraib abuse scandal. The film tells the story of a Caribbean-born boxer who killed his Cuban-born opponent in the ring for allegedly calling him a homosexual. However, corroborating evidence of Griffith's homosexuality is as scanty in the documentary as it is in the boxer's life. Like the absent sexualities of actual gay men in the Iraqi scandal, Griffith's absent sexuality in the film relies problematically on a conceptual confusion between gender and sexuality.

Lewis, Linden (2006). Unsettling Masculinity in the Caribbean: Facing a Future Without Guarantees. Working Paper 06-9: The International Working Group on Gender, Macroeconomics, and International Economics. PDF Download. Abstract: This working paper is based on a lecture delivered by Dr. Lewis on Nov. 14, 2003 in a lecture series sponsored by Caribbean Women Catalysts for Change. Dr. Linden evaluates Caribbean masculinity in terms of how it is bound up with the crises and contradictions of capitalism. The impact of the process of global economic restructuring, the all-consuming power of transnational capital, the emergence of new forms of globalized masculinity and patriarchy, and the prospects of economic marginalization all represent the context in which Dr. Linden considers men and masculinity in the region. In considering the specific ways Caribbean masculinity could be unsettled or destabilized, the paper considers unemployment, homosexuality, impotence and other sexual disfunction, and masculine essentialism.

Murray, David AB (2005). Who's Right? Human Rights, Sexuality and Social Change in the Caribbean. Salises Seminar Series No. 6. PDF Download.  This is absolutely and fundamentally a politicized process, as it is clear that there are also Caribbean traditions and values that work to promote inequality and/or ranking of people based on behaviours and actions, as is most clearly the case in issues pertaining to sexual practices. If we are to adopt a ‘communitarian’ based approach to human rights then it is important to keep in mind that we are NOT claiming that there are, in Barbados, the Caribbean or whatever other ‘community’ context, a timeless, unchanging set of rules or principles which state in black and white what is acceptable and unacceptable. Furthermore, it is also problematic to think that any culture is composed of a group of people who all think exactly the same way and have the same opinions. Dissent, debate, and difference over what matters or what is right and wrong are equally universal to culture. Social change and internal difference is an inevitable fact of every community everywhere, so the issue then becomes one of how change is effected within local contexts and what principles or values are referred to in that process.

Gosine, Andil (2007). ’Race’, culture, power, sex, desire and love: Writing in ‘men who have sex with men. IDS Bulletin. 37(5): 27-33. Word Download.  ‘MSM’ was and still is being used by many organisations of non-white men in North America and Europe to challenge western ways of naming, knowing and speaking about sexuality. As other terms commonly used to describe same-sex desire, such as ‘gay’, ‘homosexual’, ‘bisexual’ and ‘queer’ were produced in particular social and economic conditions that primarily referenced metropolitan white cultural expressions of sexuality, ‘MSM’ was (and is still seen by some) to be a more appropriate and inclusive descriptor. Indeed, in its earlier usage, ‘men who have sex with men’ was understood to be just a descriptor, not a state of being, and the groups that employed the phrase tended to emphasise the idea that sexual identities were fluid. The 2004 Naz (India) manual on MSM reflects this understanding in its acknowledgement that ‘some believe the notion of a sexual identity, and in particular the use of the term ‘gay’, is a Western import that may not be relevant or appropriate for South Asian countries’ (Naz Foundation (India) Trust 2004: 9). However, as the term has become more widely referenced in international development work, the challenges it once posed to the authority of the West appear to have been blunted. First, through its use as a broad description of men leading very different lives in very different contexts, MSM has mimicked Orientalist strategies of collapsing cultural differences between non-western (and non-white) people, and marked them as “Others”. Kothis in Bangladesh, Ibbi in Senegal, Yan daudu in Nigeria, African-American and Latino men ‘on the down low’ in the USA, and hijra in India are collectively tagged ‘MSM’ despite speaking different languages, holding different religious beliefs, occupying different social positions in various environmental spaces, and being engaged in different kinds of sexual practices and emotional relationships.2 Interestingly, this universalising narration of sexualities across the South is also happening at a time when more challenges are being posed to dominant models in the West....

Agard-Jones, Vanessa (2009). Le Jeu de Qui?1 Sexual Politics at Play in the French Caribbean. CRGS: Caribbean Review of Gender Studies, 3. PDF Download. Abstract: By virtue of their non-independent political status, Martinique and Guadeloupe (France's Antilles) operate under a legal regime unique to the Caribbean vis à vis sexual rights. While in certain independent countries in the region homosexuality is criminalized and “homosexual acts” are punishable by law, France’s legal code both affords protections and extends certain rights, such as access to the PACS (the pacte civil de solidarité is a form of civil union available to both same sex and heterosexual couples in France since 1999), to Martinican and Guadeloupean citizens. This paper seeks to understand the modes of representation that frame lesbian and gay Antilleans as subjects of particular (European) rights and victims of certain (Caribbean) violences. I document the loci of power that emerge as these discourses develop in a circuit between the Caribbean and the metropole, paying particular attention to the questions of legitimacy and authenticity mobilized in these fields. I argue that, despite the best intentions of (mostly) metropolitan-based advocacy groups, these discourses support the mapping of a developmental teleology on the Antilles, labeling them less “modern” than their metropolitan counterparts. I question how this framing dovetails with French nationalism, particularly as it relates to the country’s self-perception as an originator and defender of human rights. Because these discourses sometimes occlude the complicated, everyday experiences of queer Antilleans (both at “home” and in diaspora), I integrate into my analysis conversations with various interlocutors in both the Antilles and in Paris. By examining the politics of sexuality in the French Caribbean, this paper is a simultaneous consideration of teleologies of development and the limits of liberal rights paradigms, as well as a critique of the politics of representation that impact queer lives in the Antilles.

Transgender Caribbean Activists Speak Out (2009, Videos): IGLHRC held its first strategy workshop for trans activists in the Caribbean... designed to provide activists from the most marginalized communities with training in documentation and human rights advocacy... held in conjunction with the Caribbean Forum for Liberation and Acceptance of Genders and Sexualities (CARIFLAGS) and the Caribbean Vulnerable Communities Coalition (CVC). The videos capture the hardships and challenges confronted by some of the activists who attended the workshop.

ILGA-LAC (2009). A 40 años de Stonewall Inn: Transfobia, Lesbofobia, Homofobia, Bifobia en Latinoamérica y El Caribe. PDF Download. - Informe de Asociación de lesbianas, gays, trans, bisexuales e intersex (2009, Translation): “A 40 años de Stonewall: Lesbofobia, Transfobia, Homofobia, Bifobia en Latino América y El Caribe”  El Informe ILGALAC se difunde oficialmente, a semanas de conmemorar los 40 años de Stonewall. El documento es un homenaje a la lucha iniciada, finalizando la década de los 60, por un grupo de personas trans, seguidas por lesbianas, gays y bisexuales y una denuncia de la discriminación jurídica que aún recae sobre la diversidad sexual. De acuerdo al Informe de la Asociación de lesbianas, gays, trans, bisexuales e intersex de Latinoamérica y El Caribe, aún existen diversas leyes que penalizan la homosexualidad asociándola a prácticas sodomíticas o a través de la interpretación de las leyes desde un enfoque que refuerza la normalidad de la práctica sexual heterosexual y estigmatiza la práctica sexual homosexual. En este contexto El Caribe es el territorio en donde más se vulneran los derechos de personas LTTTGBI, en tanto, muchos de sus países aún se rigen por legislaciones heredadas desde los procesos de colonización británica...

Murder Inna Dancehall: DAVID AUERBACH CHIFFRIN (general secretary for An Nou Alle!, a LGBT organisation for Martinique, Guadeloupe & French Guyana)
LGBT people from the French overseas territories or from sub-saharan Africa are particularly exposed to homophobia (and to hatreds associated with transxexualism or AIDS), as well as to sexually transmitted diseases and the risk of suicide for the following reasons. (1) The machismo and sexism current in society; (2) Pressure from extended families; (3) Religious commentaries derived from a literal reading of the Bible or Koran; (4) Political commentaries claiming that minority sexual (or gender) orientations were perversions introduced by former colonists or slave-owners; (5) Taboos surrounding the mere mention of sex and sexuality; (6) The need for scapegoats; (7) Racism, which affects every LGBT people of color. (the following text in French by the same author is more profound analysis of homophobia in the Caribbean). [French text translated by Google].
- Le Dance-Hall aux Antilles : Entre homophobie et mysogynie  (2006, Translation).

The Gay Caribbean/USA Pageant Website: An event developed to help foster tolerance of the gay lifestyle within the Caribbean American Community. Thus, creating a spirit of openness and exposing creative talent. The pageant which is in its third year has generated a lot of buzz within the Caribbean American and gay communities. Whereby gaining lots of media attention for its self. The level of publicity which the pageant received has set the stage for open discussion on matters relating to the lifestyle. This will undoubtedly lead to understanding and eventually tolerance. The pageant is a significant and timely venture which can give rise to positive change within our community. Therefore, the mission of the pageant which is to promote tolerance becomes closer. While its subliminal goal of entertaining is delivered upon. That is with the staging of an over the top, talked about and exciting production. - Miss Gay Caribbean Pageant 2011.

GLBT Caribbean Travel (2011): Even though some of the islands of the Caribbean have a reputation for homophobia (Jamaica is a prime example), for most of the islands, once there are no public displays of affection (PDA), most people look the other way and are generally comfortable and friendly with gay and lesbian travelers... Generally speaking, when traveling in the Caribbean, once gay and lesbian travelers remember the PDA rule and all should be well!

How homophobic is the Caribbean? Find out where you can be gay and "feel irie" on your next island hop (2005): Still, if by "gay vacation" one means a tropical holiday in a seaside resort town packed with gay clubs, saunas, a Hamburger Mary's franchise, and same-sex couples openly engaging in PDAs, the Caribbean region offers slim pickings. And the March barring of a gay cruise to St. Kitts and Nevis highlights the ongoing struggle of gay tourism in this diverse region. The closest Caribbean approximations of gay life will probably be found-ironically enough--in American territories such as Puerto Rico or St. Croix, in the U.S. Virgin Islands, or on French or Dutch-speaking islands, including the "ABCs" (Aruba, Bonaire, and Curacao), St. Maarten, and Guadeloupe. But even in these chore hospitable destinations, resorts and nightlife that are gay-specific or-exclusive tend to be few and far between, perhaps with the exception of Puerto Rico's capital, San Juan. However, it is possible to be "gay" and to "vacation" (if not "gay-vacation" per se) happily and safely in much of the Caribbean--provided you're realistic about your expectations and reconcile yourself to the cultural, social, and political realities of your island destination...

The Gay Caribbean Pageant Part 1 - Host Sunbean Harmonica (2010, YouTube). - Part 2: The Contestants. - Part 3- Entertainment Part not the Contestants. - The Gay Caribbean Pageant footage Part 4. - The Gay Caribbean Pageant Footage Part 5. - The Gay Caribbean Pageant Footage Part 7. - The Gay Caribbean Pageant Footage Part 8. - The Gay Caribbean Pageant Footage Part 10. - The Gay Caribbean Pageant Footage Part 11.

Miss Gay Caribbean Pageant 2011. - 2011 Gay Caribbean USA Pageant: Part One - Hemish Gervis chats with contestants vieing for the crown of 2011 Miss Gay Caribbean USA. In this interview are Miss Jamaica, Miss Barbados, Miss Haiti and Miss St. Lucia. - 2011 Gay Caribbean USA Pageant: Part Two - Hemish Gervis chats with contestants vieing for the crown of 2011 Miss Gay Caribbean USA. In this interview are Miss Guyana, Miss Trinidad & Tobago and Miss Dominican Republic. - 2011 Gay Caribbean USA Pageant: Hemish Gervis interviews the first ever lesbian pageant contestant, Stefon Iman who is a Male Impersonator and represents Puerto Rico.

Une comédie antillaise qui aborde l'homosexualité féminine (2010, Translation). .

Resource Links: - The Gully. - Search GayToday.com Archives. - Sodomy Laws: Caribbean. - Asociación para la Salud Integral y la Ciudadanía de América Latina y el Caribe (Translation). - REDLACTRANS: RED Latinoamericana y del Caribe de Personas Trans. - Coalicion de organizaciones de lesbianas, gays, bisexuales, transexuales, travestis, transgenero e intesex de America Latina y el Caribe (Translation).

Gay Caribbean. (Global Gayz): - News/Reports. - ukblackout.com's (To 2008):  Caribbesn GLBT Links. - ukblackout.com's Caribbesn GLBT Articles (To 2006). - GLBTQ: Puerto Rico and the Caribbean - The Caribbean's first Gay & Lesbian Social Network launches from Jamaica (2008): Rainbowvibes.com. - Cristianos Gays (Translation).

MSMGF News Articles & Documents Resources. By Region & Country:  - Caribbean

FRee Forum Online (Numerous Articles): No. 1 choice in the fight against AIDS, for men who have sex with men (MSM) and Gay communities in the Caribbean (To 2009). - FRee Forum Issues: #1: Pride 2002. - # 2: World AIDS Day, 2002. - #3: Carnival 2003. - #4: Pride 2003. - #5: World AIDS Day 2003. # 6: Carnival 2004.  - #7: Prde 2004.  #8: World AIDS Day 2004. - # 9: Pride 2005. - # 10: Pride 2005: Advocacy & Human Rights in the Caribbean. - # 11: World AIDS Day 2005: Keeping the Promise. - # 12: What's Your Position: Caribbean Men & HIV. - # 13: Pride 2006. - # 14: World AIDS Day 2006. - # 15: Health & Social issues for the Men who have Sex with Men Communities in the Caribbean. - # 16: Pride 2007. - # 17: World AIDS Day 2007. - # 18: Carnival 2008. - # 19: Pride 2008 - United by Pride = Bound by Equity.  - # 20: Treatment and Care 2008. - # 21: Prevention 2009: Steps Toward Personal Change.  - # 22: Human Rights & Advocacy: Chances to Change, 2009. 

Blabbeando Blog: Latin American GLBTQ News / Commentaries: 2005 to Present.  

 
To "The SEARCH Section" For The Best Search Engines & Information Directories, The Searchable Sites to Locate Papers & Abstracts... and The Sites - Some Searchable - Where "Free Papers" Are Available! 


CUBA (Wikipedia): - Cubans stage ‘independent’ Gay Pride march (2011):  Despite gains in recent years, an alternative gay rights group held a small protest in Havana on Tuesday to “demand” respect for the rights of gays. - En Cuba ya no es políticamente correcto ser homófobo (2011, Translation). - Cuba’s Revolution in Attitudes About Gays, HIV+: A First-Hand Report (2011). - Gay Cubans taste growing freedom (2011). - Are Cuba's communists getting ready to support LGBT rights? (2011). - Gay Cuban man, transsexual to wed on Fidel's birthday (2011): Activists seek to use island nation's first gay marriage to advance gay rights. - Cuba Education Tours Announces Rainbow Cuba Tour For LGBT People For May 2011 (2011). - Televisar la homosexualidad en Cuba (2011, Translation): La Habana, 3 may.- Aunque la televisión cubana se ha acercado un poco al tema de la homosexualidad, ausencias y tendencias negativas cuando se representan a personas que gustan del mismo sexo prevalecen en este popular medio de comunicación masiva en Cuba, según especialistas. - En Cuba, la homosexualidad aún está cargada de tendencias negativas en programas televisivos (2011, Translation). - ¿Es tan terrible ser homosexual en Cuba? (2011, Translation). - Partido Comunista contra discriminación por orientación sexual en Cuba (2011, Translation).

Parade: Gay Rights in Cuba (2011, YouTube). - Cuba Carefully Doles Out GLBT Rights (2011). - Cuba's gay pride parade: big debut, few marchers (2011). - A Gay Fiesta, Cuban Style (2011). - Gay Pride Parade in Havana (2011). - Pink Planet: Cuba’s gay oasis (2011). - Cuba Goes Both Ways on Gay Rights: United Nations vote opens room for dissent (2011). - Gay Pride in Cuba: The Campaign for GLBT Rights (2010). - Raw Video: Castro's Niece Leads Cuba Gay Parade (2010, YouTube). - Young and Gay In Cuba  (2010). - International Day against Homophobia celebrated in Cuba -- three reports from Havana (2009). - Cuba plans its first gay pride parade (2008). - First Gay Pride in Havana Cuba, June 14 2008 (2008, YouTube). Se les tolera, pero aún no se les acepta, porque no existe una implicación sociológica para pensar que quienes difieren de nosotros por su preferencias sexuales, son iguales por su condición de individuos (2008, Translation). - Havana – A Homoerotic City - The Cuban Gay Experience  (2007, by Moshe Morad): . “We have a saying here - In Cuba always try to enjoy yourself, never try to understand” tells me Lazaro, a 30 year old choreographer.  Cuba is full of paradoxes and trying to understand the logic behind things might indeed prove to be a difficult task. Enjoying yourself in Cuba is much easier

Taboos & Truths on Homosexuality in Cuba (2011).Gay Pride in Cuba: A Constant Battle (2011). - Homosexuality in Cuba (PPT Presentation). - Cuban drag queens, from closet to the public stage (2010). - Sex Change Operations in Cuba (2010). - Ten Years Fighting HIV/AIDS and Reaching Out to Gays (2010).- Gay Rights in Cuba: Cuban Policy Towards Homosexuality (2010). - Cuba's gays look back on dark past (2010, YouTube). - Castro takes blame for Cuba's anti-gay persecution (2010). -  Castro takes responsibility for past anti-gay persecution in Cuba (2010). - Fidel Castro regrets discrimination against gays in Cuba (2010). - Inside Cuba:: Gay Life in Cuba (2009): Not much has changed since Reinaldo Arenas’ time. - Castro champions gay rights in Cuba  (2008). - First day in Havana,First Impressions and trying to Meet Gay Cubans... (2008). - Why many Cuban gay men and lesbians left after 1959 (2007).

Cuba surpasses world on same-sex, trans rights (2007, Alternate Link): The Communist Party of Cuba has welcomed an update of the revolutionary Family Code to include same-sex and trans rights... If the initiative is approved, gay and lesbian couples would enjoy the same civil, patrimonial, inheritance, housing and adoption rights as heterosexual couples. - No Turning Back on Gay Rights in Cuba (2005). - Se propone legalizar derechos de minorías sexuales (2007, Translation). - Monsignor Carlos M. De Céspedes accepts “legal protection” of gay unions but not marriage (2007). - Gay marriage coming to Cuba? - Communist Cuba Goverment Seeks to Secure Homosexual "Right" to Adoption (2007). - Cuba vive una revolución... sexual (2007, Translation). - Cuba's CENESEX proposes ground-breaking transsexual rights (2007). - Cuba entierra el 'machismo-leninismo' (2007, Translation). - Being LGBTQ in Cuba Gold at the end of the rainbow? (2007).

Mariela Castro: Cuba is prepared for transformation with and without Fidel (2007). - Cuba's sexual minorities find a champion in a Castro (2007). - Interview (2006): Mariela Castro, MS, Director, National Center for Sex Education. - Mariela Castro speaks out for Cuba's gay minority (2006). - Gay revolution hits Cuba (2006). - FSM: Evolución de la situación de las lesbianas, gays y transexuales en Cuba (2006, Translation). - Cuba, homosexualidad y travestismo (2005, Translation): El nuevo documental de la realizadora cubana Lizette Vila, “Sexualidad, un derecho a la vida”, estrenado esta semana en La Habana, calienta un polémico asunto en la isla: la homosexualidad y el travestimo, sobre el cual pesan prejuicios y tabúes que frenan hasta las políticas oficiales. La película de 30 minutos se refiere a un grupo de travestis locales que, luego de pasar un curso, trabajan como promotores de salud sexual.

When it comes to gay rights, is Cuba  inching ahead of USA? (2007, Alternate Link) - Helping Cubans realize `what it means to be gay' (2006). - El tema de la bisexualidad polariza a Cuba (2006, Translation). - Cuba divided on the issue of bisexuality (2006). - U.S. votes with Iran, Cuba, Sudan and Zimbabwe against two gay groups at United Nations (2006). - Mapplethorpe gay art comes to Cuba (2005, Alternate Link). - Exposicion de Mapplethorpe en Cuba (2005, Translation). - ¿En Cuba se persigue la homosexualidad? (2007, Translation): Es un tópico recurrente en las campañas contra la Revolución cubana la afirmación de que en Cuba se persigue la homosexualidad. Una construcción mediática repetida tantas veces y durante tantos años que es asumida como verdad indiscutible incluso por sectores progresistas vinculados a la lucha por el derecho a la diversidad sexual en el mundo.

The Status of Gays in Cuba: Myth and Reality (2006). - Panel Sobre la Situación de los Homosexuales en Cuba en el Festival Gay de Estocolmo (2006. Translation) (Stockholm Pride): En la tarde de hoy, 2 de agosto, del 2006, se realizó en la capital de Suecia, Estocolmo, un seminario sobre las condiciones de los homosexuales en Cuba, como parte de las actividades del Festival Gay. Con la presencia de más de medio centenar de personas, el panel compuesto por varios integrantes cubanos y suecos, conocedores de la realidad cubana, expusieron a los presentes un panorama de la situación de los gays, lesbianas y bisexuales en la isla. - Gay revolution hits Cuba (2006). - Gay rights in Cuba (2004).

Cuba: Homosexualidad, burla y silencio (2003, Translation): Una reciente versión de la novela El Conde de Montecristo para la televisión cubana fue extremadamente fiel al original de Alejandro Dumas, menos en un pequeño detalle: la hija de uno de los enemigos del Conde se escapa con su novio, en lugar de hacerlo con su mejor amiga. La televisión cubana tampoco ha exhibido el film Fresa y chocolate, que fue nominado al Oscar como mejor película extranjera... - Sobre Cuba y los Gays: Extraido del foro de Joves Comunistes (2005, Translation).

Escapate a la Habana (Translation): Sin duda uno de los países del mundo que tiene una activísima vida gay, pero que no la ventila a través del Internet por sus condiciones específicas en los económico, lo político y lo social, es Cuba. Uno podría pasar horas enteras en la Internet buscando una guía o recomendaciones generales para orientarse sobre las actividades sugeridas para la gente gay que viajará a la hermosa Antilla Mayor, y realmente lo único que se encuentra son alarmantes noticias de supuestos ataques contra homosexuales o información tan tendenciosa, caduca o engañosa como la que –desafortunadamente–  aparece en la edición 2001 de la guía gay mundial Spartacus; ahí se dice que la homosexualidad está prohibida en Cuba (lo que fue cierto en alguna medida y durante un tiempo), que muchos sitios meramente turísticos son gays (lo que es falso) o que a las personas a las que se les detecta VIH son separadas de la sociedad y confinadas a sitios alejados de las concentraciones urbanas (lo que es totalmente falso e ignora la existencia de importantes programas de prevención, investigación médica y servicios de atención a personas con VIH). En fin, lo que quiero manifestar es mi sorpresa ante la enorme vaguedad, falsedad e imprecisión de la información que existe en la red con relación a la vida gay en la bellísima Cuba...

The situation for Cuban gays is also awash in misinformation (1996). - Havana workshop discusses homosexuality (1993). - Rights - Cuba: Gay rights: How much has changed? (1993). - Here, queer and going to Cuba (1995). - A gay May Day in Havana (1995). - 'Strawberry' takes a look at Cuban sexuality (1995). - Gay disco raided in Havana (1997). - Government Attacks Against Homosexuals (1997). - Cuba - Black, Gay Male Perspective (1994). - Commentary on Cuba by a gay Singaporean (1998). - The Queens of Cuba (1999). - Transvestites face police scrutiny (2004).- Cuba's Transsexuals Get Powerful New Friend (2004, Alternate Link). - Con pasión y sin prejuicio: Gays en Cuba (2001, Translation). - La Sociedad Cubana Ante La Homosexualidad (2003, Translation). - Homosexualidad en Cuba (2003, Translation). - Gays in Cuba: Invisible no more (2004). - Carlos Sanchez, ILGA LAC rep tells us about his cuban experience. - Reunión entre gays y heterosexuales, en Cuba (2004, Translation). - Gay rights in Cuba: how much has changed? (2004). - Proposed Reform Would Give Gay Couples Equal Rights (2007). 

Carlos Alfonzo's Canvas of Suffering (1998): "Although he hid his homosexuality in Cuba..." - Gay Cuba (1998) (Living the Gay "La Vida Loca" (Crazy Life) under a repressive regime, Must Scroll): "Cuba's history of brutal treatment of its Gay citizens, particularly Gay men, is a permanent scar on the face of the Castro regime." - Joel Angelino (1996, Translation): "Tu es né à Cuba un beau jour de 1971. Parle-moi un peu de ton enfance." - Rights-Cuba: TV Opens Debate on Taboo Subject - Homosexuality (2004). - Gay Cuba Libre! (2001, Alternate Link) - Cuba Libre? Guess Again (2003). - Gay Cubans Struggle Under Castro N/A. - Havana Boys (2000). - Gay Cuba (2003). - Por enmienda constitucional en defensa de los homosexuales (2004, Translation).

Morad M (2005). Cuba'a article 303 in a regional perspective: Legislation and gay human rights violation in Latin America.  Word Download.  Amnesty's report on human rights violations against gays and lesbians, or as its title indicates "based on sexual orientation", published in 1997, sheds light on the approach of the Latin American regimes towards gays and towards gay rights in the first years of the 1990's , providing the right "regional" setting to the period of my research in Cuba. Although Cuba's internal policies do not always follow the regional trend due to the centralism, the separatism and the political isolation of Castro's regime, it is important to understand the regional background, climate and dynamics, in order to better understand developments in Cuba. Castro has always (and now more than ever)  aimed for Cuba to be included in some kind of "pan Latin " installation, and in a way, culturally and historically, Cuba does belong to the Hispanic / Latin American world, rather than to the closer Caribbean regional community...

Homosexuality in cuban literature: An Approach to a Taboo (2007). - Oye, do you know of any other gay Cuban writers? (2008). - Discurrir, decursar y discursar de una sensibilidad homosexual en Cuba: algunos hitos y momentos cruciales (2008, Translation). - Cuba: Homosexualidad, burla y silencio (2005, Translation). - Lauro Vázquez y la literatura homosexual en Cuba (2011, Translation). - Cuba conmemorará centenario de escritor marginado por homosexual (2011, Translation). - Jesse Monteagudo: Florida's Foremost Gay Scholar (2002).

Welcome to Cuba: The Cuban Gay Underground (2000). - Beyond Machismo: a Cuban Case Study (2000?). - Gays Wed In Cuba: The Second Revolution (2001). - Gay Cuban Nation (2002). - Homosexuality in Cuba: revolution within the revolution. (1999, Alternate Link) - Homosexuality in Cuba. - Gay in Cuba: A Talk with Gisela Arandia Covarrubia (2000?). - Gay Cubans Enjoy New Freedoms N/A. - Homosexuality Is Not Illegal In Cuba, But Like Elsewhere, Homophobia Persists. - Viva gay Cuba! Out and married in the increasingly tolerant Communist island (2001). - Gays Wed In Cuba: The Second Revolution (2001). - Travestismo en Cuba: La estrategia del disfraz (Translation). - El homosexualismo en la cultura cubana. Algunas aproximaciones a una cultura tabú (Translation). -  In Cuba: Young, Gay, Out and Married Southeast of Havana. Cuban Association of Gays & Lesbians was Founded in 1994.  Anti-Gay Scene Mellowed after Film Strawberry & Chocolate (2001).

The Cuba Gospel According to Chuck 45 (2000):  "And while I've never been too fond of American moralizing, that was before I started doing it myself right here, right now, in my own queer way. It feels good. Get used to it." Cuba Now: The Good, the Bad, the Ugly (2000): Castro's Cuba is a maddeningly complex knot. The opposition is oppressed but not shot, the citizens live long healthy lives, the queens have returned, and the bumbling economy is getting a boost from Europe. Gay Cuba links at the end. - Gay Rights in Cuba (Must Scroll). - Gay Rights and Life in Cuba.

AIDS High Rate Infection in Homosexual Men Continues (2011). - AIDS and Human Rights in Cuba: A Personal Memoir: Attending an AIDS conference in Havana as 70 Cuban dissidents are tried and three men executed (2003, Alternate Link). - Gay Cubans fight own Aids battle (2003). - Homosexual and AIDS in Cuba (1998). -

QueerTheory: Reinaldo Arenas (1943-1990). - Reinaldo Arenas, 47, Writer Who Fled Cuba, Dies (1990). - Reinaldo Arenas (Wikipedia). - After Night Falls (2000): The Revival of Reinaldo Arenas. - Queer Classic: Reinaldo Arenas's "Before Night Falls" (2001). - Alert on Before Night Falls: Old Trash in New Buckets (2001). - Activists protest film about gay Cuban writer (2001). - "Before the Night Fall" Film Review (2001). - Gays in Cuba, from the Hollywood School of Falsification (2001): A Movie Review of "Before Night Falls". - Apropos Before Night Falls: Gay pa Kuba (2001). - Reinaldo Arenas or gay hedonism in Cuba. (2000, Alternate Link) - The Sexual Politics of Reinaldo Arenas: Fact, Fiction, and the Real Record of the Cuban Revolution (2001). - The defiant one: Gay writer Reinaldo Arenas was persecuted by Castro's homophobic regime. Now a film about his life has outraged Fidel's followers (2001). - Sexual Revolution (2003). - Reinaldo furioso. - Reinaldo Arenas: The Sexual
Politics of a Queer Activist
. - The Sexual Politics of Reinaldo Arenas: Fact, Fiction and the Real Record of the Cuban Revolution. - Homosexualidad en Cuba: lesbianas, las más rechazadas (2003, Translation).

Fidel Castro on homosexuality (2006): Lacking the details on when this book will be published in English, CubaNews is presenting this excerpt from the new book of interviews with Fidel Castro on this topic which is always of such interest to so many people. Fidel has given two previous on-the-record interviews on this subject, in 1992 and 1965. You can find them at the page linked below, which contains a very comprehensive listing of items, links and recommended readings on Cuba and homosexuality... - Homosexuals as the New Niggers (1973). - Critical dialogue: Homosexuality in Cuba (1978). - El manejo de la homosexualidad por la Psiquiatría cubana  (2010, Translation). - El lesbianismo en Cuba (2005, Translation). - Race and sex in Cuba (2007).

Gay Cuba? Not yet! The homophobia of the Castro regime has eased, but queers still suffer discrimination: "Julian Schnabel’s new film, Before Night Falls, dramatises the persecution of gay Cuban writer, Reinaldo Arenas, and reignites controversy over the homophobia of the Castro regime. Peter Tatchell looks at this dark period of Cuba’s history and reveals that while the anti-gay witch-hunts have ceased, gays still suffer discrimination." - Havana Boys: " I found ten Cubans-nine gay men and the mother of one of the men-who agreed to be interviewed about what it’s like to be gay in Cuba today. All agreed to allow me to use their photographs as well as their real names: Julio, Mario, Darvin, Alexander, Javier, Osmany, Alex, Faubel, and Adonis. Despite the potential danger, the agreed to the interview so that their voices could be heard outside of Cuba... Alex: Because of the social system it is hard for us [to be gay], the police are always abusing us because they think that we are not human and they think that they are helping the society. Julio: Everyone looks at us as if we have a sex sign of our faces, and all we want to do is live our lives, to enjoy our life and to be together... We are nobody here, a gay person is nobody. We are not seen as normal."

Gays in Cuba still struggling to find place of their own (2002): "It was the night's clandestine ''floating party,'' reserved for gays. ''Tomorrow the party will be somewhere else,'' said Jose Miguel, a 27-year-old publishing company employee who asked that his last name be withheld for fear of reprisals. ``We have to keep it moving.'' early a decade after the debut of ''Strawberry and Chocolate,'' a landmark film that opened new horizons for gays in Cuba, homosexuals are still struggling to find a place of their own. Literally. Gay discos and clubs are banned under the socialist regime. Gay marches are taboo, and so are gay magazines and gay organizations... ''I think we're accepted by society, but not by government and definitely not by the police,'' he said..." - In Cuba: Young, Gay, Out  and Married Southeast of Havana - Cuban Association of Gays & Lesbians was Founded in 1994 - Anti-Gay Scene Mellowed after Film Strawberry & Chocolate (2001).

Gay Rights and Wrongs in Cuba. - Sexual politics: What do Fidel Castro and Margaret Thatcher have incommon? Jeffrey Weeks explains why many politicians of both Left and Right oppress lesbians and gays. - America's Left and the Double Standard Over Gays in Cuba (2001). - Una visión poco interesada sobre los homosexuales en Cuba (2001, Translation): La cultura homosexual en Cuba pudo haber estado reprimida hace treinta años. ¿Dónde, en qué otro lugar, era diferente en ese tiempo prehistórico? Sin embargo no es verdad hoy. Verdaderamente sería impensable que “Out Magazine” (una revista sobre nuevas tendencias y corrientes) presentara La Habana como “el actual sitio de moda de los homosexuales” si en Cuba hubiera tanta represión como afirman los colegas de Kent..

My Love Affair With A Secret Place (1998?) - by Cleo Manago: "I was anxious to learn for myself what life was like for same-gender-loving people in Cuba. I had heard that Cuba had a particularly "macho" culture and that "gays and lesbians" were not treated very well... According to the same gender loving people I met, there are people who don't agree with or understand homosexuality but what's called "gay" bashing in the U.S. is rare in Cuba. Pablo Milanes, one of the most celebrated musical artist in the country, wrote a popular song in honor and acknowledgment of Cuba's same gender loving people. Cuban homosexuals are not interested in building a separate sexuality based community. This idea is foreign to Cuban consciousness. Often what's called homophobia by "gays" who visit Cuba is cultural imperialism on the part of these "gays" who tend to think the white "Gay Pride" social model should be adopted by all same gender loving people throughout the world. This divisive practice also causes a rift between communities of color and "gays" in the US..."

Personas transexuales demandan apoyo social y familiar  (2011, Translation): Muchas veces incomprendidas en los ámbitos social y familiar, las personas transexuales necesitan del apoyo de sus seres queridos y del entorno comunitario para avanzar en su inserción plena, precisaron en la capital cubana varias de ellas, durante el I Coloquio Internacional Transidentidades, Género y Cultura, celebrado del 9 al 11 de junio de 2010. “Más que una reasignación sexual, que es importante, necesitamos una reasignación social, sentirnos más aceptadas, contar con el apoyo de nuestros familiares”, dijo Wendy Iriepa, una de las transexuales cubanas beneficiadas con las cirugías de readecuación genital que, desde 2008, se realizan en Cuba como parte de la atención integral a personas transexua¬les naturales y residentes en la isla caribeña...

Prostitution and Sex Tourism in Cuba (2001). Cuba in Transition, 11: 356-71. (PDF Download, Alternate Link): "Male prostitution is also present in Havana. In Cuba, unlike in other Caribbean islands such as Jamaica,14 gay men dominate male prostitution. Hustlers and other gay men congregate nightly at the corner of the Cine Yara, in Vedado... Gay prostitution is similar to heterosexual prostitution. Hustlers cater mainly to European men, especially Italians. They charge between $30-$50. They see prostitution as a good way to make money, and generally do not prostitute themselves out of desperation or to support a drug or alcohol addiction... Transvestites are common within the gay community. Some transvestites simply dress in women’s clothes at night. Others are transsexuals, who have had operations to change their gender..." - Notes (in French) on male prostitution in Cuba for tourists - by voyager.com. "La prostitution masculine connaît aussi une augmentation notable au pays. Ce n'est pas une prostitution masculine habituelle, mais plutôt une façon subtile qu'ont certains hommes de soutirer tout ce qu'ils peuvent de leurs conquêtes féminines venues de l'étranger."

The Ultimate "Planet Out" Guide to Queer Movies (Country: Cuba). - Controversial gay soap opera grips Cuba (2006). - Cuban gay soap cracks a legacy of hate (2006). - Gay in Cuba; The Dark Side of the Moon (2006). - Gay film cycle inaugurated in Cuba (2004). - El tema gay en el arte cubano (Translation). - Gay Cuba. - Plot summary for Gay Cuba (1996). - Gay Cuba: related article (2007). - Gay Cuba (1997, Review). - GLBTQ: Cuba. - Two Homelands: Cuba and the Night (Dos Patrias: Cuba y la noche): What is life like for gays in contemporary Cuba? In this myth-dispelling film, German director Christian Liffers presents six unforgettable personal stories that underscore the many differences in experience, social status and opinions of gay men in Havana. - From Cuba, where homosexuals fare poorly (2007): Documentary filmmaker Christian Liffers looks at the plight of homosexuals in Cuba in his provocative Dos Patrias Cuba y La Noche (Two Homelands, Cuba and the Night) showing tomorrow as part of the Providence Latin American Film Festival. - En Miami documental sobre la prostitución homosexual en Cuba (2009, Translation).

Sexuality and the Public Sphere: The previous scene is the opening of the Cuban documentary Mariposas en el andamio (Butterflies on the Scaffold), directed and produced in 1995 by Luis Felipe Bernaza and Margaret Gilpin. Mariposas depicts a gay-identified transvestite movement in the La Güinera neighborhood on the outskirts of Havana by exploring three intertwined narratives: one that observes the transvestites during their performances and backstage, another that depicts La Güinera's transformation from a shanty town to a "model" community development, and a third that explores the subjects' private lives, their families, and the community's reactions to their lifestyles through an interview format. In my analysis of the film, I chose to focus on its more ambiguous and contradictory moments... - "Mariposas en el andamio" contiene el tema "Paloma o Pantera" Cancion de amor - Musica romantica  (YouTube). - Mariposas en el andamio (Google Video). - 'Como el Ave Feníx', la homosexualidad en Santiago de Cuba. Del documental de Guillermo de la Rosa, 2006 (Video). - 'Queda muchísimo camino por andar en la aceptación de la homosexualidad en Cuba'. 'Casa Vieja' recoge los tabúes de la homosexualidad en la sociedad cubana. La cinta está basada en la obra del dramaturgo cubano Abelardo Estorino (2011, Translation).

Homosexuality in Cuban literature (1993). - Cuba's Hammett: Interview with Leonardo Padura Fuentes (2005): Havana Red or Mascaras (Masks) is a complex novel. On one level, it is a well-executed whodunnit about the murder of a transvestite in a Havana park, but, on another, it is an examination of Cuban attitudes towards homosexuality and a revisiting of themes first aired publicly by the 1993 Oscar-nominated film Strawberry and Chocolate - namely the persecution of Cuban artists and writers in the early years of the revolution because they were homosexuals... What is the position of homosexuality in Cuba today? "Fortunately, at the official level, things have changed and today there is more tolerance, although, from time to time, one hears about some crackdown of transvestites or such like. "But, today, to be a homosexual in Cuba is not a political or a social problem. Nevertheless, deep down there is still a problem that is not entirely resolved and that is Cuban machismo, which has profound historic roots. "On the other hand, more and more gays and lesbians are doing as they please. "They live together as couples and they make their sexuality obvious and completely reject the old sexual prejudices." - MA Thesis Prospectus: Queer Cuban Nationalisms (2008). 

Cuba conmemorará centenario de escritor marginado por homosexual (2011, Translation): Cuba saldará una de sus “más grandes deudas” culturales al celebrar el centenario del nacimiento de Virgilio Piñera, uno de sus más importantes escritores, marginado en los años 70 por homosexual, informó el jueves el diario oficial Granma. - La homosexualidad en la literatura cubana (Translation): La homosexualidad es una circunstancia que no ha pasado por alto a lo largo de la historia de las letras, y en ese sentido, Cuba no se ha quedado atrás. - Lauro Vázquez y la literatura homosexual en Cuba (2011, Translation). - Tema homosexual en la literatura cubana de los 80 y los 90: ¿renovación o retroceso? (2007, Translation). - Eros pluralizado o del tratamiento de la homosexualidad en la TV Cubana (2011, Translation).

Estrenan en México documental sobre los homosexuales en la Isla (2006, Translation): Víctor Jaramillo dijo que en principio le llamó la atención la naturalidad con que los niños de 13 ó 14 años aceptaban su homosexualidad o ejercían la prostitución.

Arguelles L, Rich R (1984). Homosexuality, Homophobia, and Revolution: Notes toward an Understanding of the Cuban Lesbian and Gay Male Experience, Part I. Signs, 9(4): 683-699. PDF Download.

De La Torre, Miguel (1999). Beyond Machismo: a Cuban Case Study. The Annual of the Society of Christian Ethics, 19, 213-33. Internet Availability: Full Text. Full Text. "To tell a man not to be a maricón, also means "don't be a coward." Cuban homophobia differs from homophobia in the United States. We do not fear the homosexual; rather we hold him in contempt for being a man who chooses not to prove his manhood. Unlike North Americans, where two men engaged in a sexual act are both called homosexuals, for Cubans only the one that places himself in the "position" of a woman is the maricón. Only the one penetrated is labeled loca (crazy woman, a term for maricones).[13] In fact, the man who is in the dominant position during the sex act, known as bugarrón, is able to retain, if not increase, his machismo."

The culture of gender and sexuality in the Caribbean - 2003 - edited by Linden Lewis (Amazon). See:  Queering Cuba: Male Homosexuality in the Short Fiction of Manuel Granados - by Conrad James. Book Review. Book Review.

Guerra, Lillian (2010). Gender policing, homosexuality and the new patriarchy of the Cuban Revolution, 1965-70. Social History, 35(3): 268-289. PDF Download.

Larson, Scott (2005). Gay Space in Havana. In: Changing Perceptions, Emergent Perspectives, Chapter 6, pp. 64-77. PDF Download. PDF Download.

Morad M (2008). 'Invertidos' in Afro-Cuban Religion. Gay & Lesbian Review, 15(2): 26-28. PDF Download.

Morad M (2006).Male Homosexuality, Transvestism and Cross-Gender Manipulation in Cuban Santería. Word Download.

Ocasio, Rafael (2002). Gays and the Cuban Revolution: The Case of Reinaldo Arenas. Latin American Perspectives, 29(2): 78-98.  PDF Download.

Negrón-Muntaner, Frances (2008). «Mariconerías» de Estado: Mariela Castro, los homosexuales y la política cubana. Nueva Sociedad, 218: 163-179. PDF Download. Translation.

Peña, Susana (2007). "Obvious Gays" and the State Gaze: Cuban Gay Visibility and U.S. Immigration Policy during the 1980 Mariel Boatlift. Journal of the History of Sexuality, 16(3): 482-514.  PDF Download.

Strongman, Roberto (2006). Gay Human Rights in Cuba: Exile, Hegemony and Liberation in Reinaldo Arenas's La Vieja Rosa and Arturo, La Estrella Más Brillante. Journal of Latin American Cultural Studies, 15(3): 355-367. PDF Download. Download Page.  At its broadest and most ambitious, this paper strives to resolve the problematic political situation in which the discourse of human rights is appropriated by the hegemony of industrialized capitalist states in order to de-legitimize Third World regimes that refuse to submit to and be dominated by the economic, political and cultural ideologies of these industrial superpowers. For the sake of keeping to the more realistic goals that a paper of this length requires, my study will concentrate on one particular case – that of the Euro-North American moral attack on Cuba’s record on gay rights – which, because of its recent history and topical nature, provides a fresh and clear example of this larger practice.

Resource Links: - The Gully: Gay Cuba Articles Listing. - Lesbian-Gay-Bi-Sexual-Transgender issues in Cuba: An ongoing webliography. - Search GayToday.com Archives. - LGBT CUBA: Exploring island lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender issues.

Global Gayz: Caribbean: Cuba. Cuba News Reports from 1997 to the Present. - Gay Cuba - Changing. - Gay Cuba 1997-2002. - ILGA: Cuba. - LGBT rights in Cuba. - Sodomy Laws. - The International Encyclopedia of Sexuality: Cuba.

FRee Forum Online (Numerous Articles): No. 1 choice in the fight against AIDS, for men who have sex with men (MSM) and Gay communities in the Caribbean (To 2009). - FRee Forum Issues: #1: Pride 2002. - # 2: World AIDS Day, 2002. - #3: Carnival 2003. - #4: Pride 2003. - #5: World AIDS Day 2003. # 6: Carnival 2004.  - #7: Prde 2004.  #8: World AIDS Day 2004. - # 9: Pride 2005. - # 10: Pride 2005: Advocacy & Human Rights in the Caribbean. - # 11: World AIDS Day 2005: Keeping the Promise. - # 12: What's Your Position: Caribbean Men & HIV. - # 13: Pride 2006. - # 14: World AIDS Day 2006. - # 15: Health & Social issues for the Men who have Sex with Men Communities in the Caribbean. - # 16: Pride 2007. - # 17: World AIDS Day 2007. - # 18: Carnival 2008. - # 19: Pride 2008 - United by Pride = Bound by Equity.  - # 20: Treatment and Care 2008. - # 21: Prevention 2009: Steps Toward Personal Change.  - # 22: Human Rights & Advocacy: Chances to Change, 2009.

MSMGF News Articles & Documents Resources. By Region & Country:  - Caribbean: - Cuba

Blabbeando Blog: Latin American GLBTQ News / Commentaries: 2005 to Present.

Books: - Machos, Maricones, and Gays: Cuba and Homosexuality - 1996 - by Ian Lumsden (Review) (Review) (Review) (Review) (Amazon). - Gay Cuban Nation - 2001 - by Emilio Bejel. (About the Author) (Abstract) (Review) (Review) (Review) (Google Books) - Sexual Politics in Cuba: Machismo, Homosexuality, and AIDS - 1994, 1999 - by Marvin Leiner (Review) (Review) (Review) (Review) (Review). - Unmasking lesbian Cuba: (Alternate Link) "Exiled Cuban novelist Zoé Valdés talks about Dear First Love, her tough [2002] novel of passionate women in Castro’s Cuba (Excerpt) (Review) (Review). - Faces, Bodies, Personas: Tracing Cuban Stories - 2008 - by Babak Salari (Review: So to be gay on the enigmatic island is to enter into the realm of the outsider’s outsider, a netherworld of sexual and identity politics where merely waking up can become an existential journey. For sure, the days when homosexuality was considered a crime by the eager social engineers of the revolution are long gone. ). - Our Caribbean: A Gathering of Lesbian and Gay Writing from the Antilles - 2008 - edited by Thomas Glave (Interview with editor) (Review) (Review) (Google Books).


JAMAICA (Wikipedia)Jamaica’s “Violent Homophobia” (2011). - Jamaica Wants Unconditional Love for Gays (2011). - Gay and lesbian Jamaicans find refuge in NYC from persecution back home (2011). - Jamaica's gays flee homophobia, seek asylum in U.S. (2011). - Courageous Jamaican Gleaner Editorial Stands Up For Gays & Lesbians In Jamaica Says Discrimination Must End!!! (2011). - I love my gay son (2011). - Gay Jamaican Men Practice Christianity Underground Due To Homophobia In Jamaica!!! (2011, Video). - Jamaican lesbian wins appeal to stay in UK (2011). - Jamaican lesbian threatened with ‘corrective rape’  (2011). - “Out and bad”? The politics of homosexuality in Jamaica (2011). - Jamaica's attitude towards homosexuality is supposed to be moving towards providing equality before the law. So would Bruce Golding ever appoint a homosexual to his Cabinet? (2008, YouTube). - Jamaicans weigh in on rejection of gay ad (2011): JAMAICANS have expressed mixed views about a decision by Television Jamaica (TVJ) not to air a public service announcement (PSA) encouraging tolerance for the island's homosexuals. - Homosexualidad en Jamaica (Wikipedia, Translation).

Big Blow for homeless/displaced MSMs in Western Jamaica  (2011): Another big blow was dealt to the Jamaican GLBTQ community this time in Montego Bay western Jamaica as a controversial police raid involving more than 20 officers some with badge numbers covered happened on Sunday morning of February 20th around 2am at a popular lgbt entertainment spot, this coming on the heels of another mainstream exotic club in Kingston being raided by cops where an exotic dancer was raped by five officers of the law who are sworn to protect and serve... - Jamaican gay bar raided (2011). - Homophobic Violence on the Increase in Jamaica - J-FLAG (2011). - Oppression in paradise: Homosexuality and homophobia in Jamaica (2010).

Jamaica Calls For 'Unconditional Love' of Gay Citizens (2011): Progressive Jamaicans are urging other people in their country to be accepting of their LGBT family members in a new series of public service announcements launched by advocacy group J-FLAG, Jamaica Forum of Lesbian, All-Sexuals, and Gays. The current ad features Christine Straw, former Miss Jamaica World and Miss Jamaica Universe, along with her gay brother Matthew. - Watch The Anti-Homophobia Ad Running On Jamaican TV (2011). - Gay TV advert angers clerics: ‘Part of a wider plan by militant homosexuals to desensitise Jamaicans’ (2011): . - BBC Hard Talk: Jamaican Prime Minister Bruce Golding Spreads Homophobia Against Gay & Lesbian Jamaicans!!! (2011). - J-FLAG welcomes JCF's withdrawal of homo-criminals claim (2011): The local gay community has expressed pleasure at the Police High Command's withdrawal of Senior Superintendent Fitz Bailey's recent controversial claims about links between homosexuals and organised crime.

First Ever Jamaica Gay Pride - 2010. - Anti-Gay Mobs Nowhere to Be Seen at Jamaica's First Pride (2010). - Gay Rights Activist Killed in Jamaica (2010). - Jamaican Anti-Gay 'Murder Music' Heard by Millions in the US (2010). - Jamaica's Gay Underground Christians (2010). - Gay protest at Emancipation Park (2010). - Jamaica – LGBT organisation J-FLAG refused permission to host a meeting in Jamaica Pegasus Hotel (2010). - There are no gay pride parades in Jamaica (2009). - Jamaican Town Expels Gay Men, Lesbians (2009). - Jamaica: A grim place to be gay (2009). - Jamaica PM: Strict Laws Against Gays Still Stands (2009). - Fear and Loathing in Jamaica (2009): Jamaica is a land of contrasts. Tourists from around the world fly to tranquil, opulent resorts offering sugar white sand and all you can eat and drink getaways, while Jamaicans struggle in a flailing economy and increasing public instability. Jamaica has also had one of the highest murder rates in the world for many years and the LGBT community gets hit hard with this violence. The simple reality is that the vast majority of LGBT Jamaicans cannot be publicly out and physically safe. - More Tour Dates Canceled for ’Homophobic’ Jamaican Singer (2009).

Jamaican Gay Rights Activist Seeks Assylum in Canada (2008): Gareth Henry is a prominent gay rights activist in Jamaica, yet after the murder of 13 friends in the past four years, is seeking refuge status in Canada. - Gay Jamaican cop eyes asylum in Canada (2008). - Attacks Show Easygoing Jamaica Is Dire Place for Gays (2008). - Homosexuality in Jamaica: The Views, The Harsh Realities (2008). - The Caribbean's first Gay & Lesbian Social Network launches from Jamaica (2008): Rainbowvibes.com. - Anti-gay violence defies laid-back image of Jamaica (2008). - Jamaican Bishop: “I will fight homosexuality and lesbianism with every fiber of my being!” (2007). - Jamaican gay leader escapes lynching (2007): Four men narrowly escaped being lynched by a homophobic mob in Kingston, Jamaica, on Valentine's Day, last Wednesday, 14 February 2007. A crowd of around 200 people besieged the men in a pharmacy in the Tropical Plaza shopping centre, abusing them with anti-gay taunts and threats to kill them.

Upsetting the Balance » Why Many Gay Jamaicans Reject Change-Activism (2011): This is a continuation of the post “Oh, to be a queen! Let’s Be Real.” Over the weekend, I engaged with a few other gay and lesbian Jamaicans who criticized ‘flamboyant gay men’ and ‘butch lesbians’ for making the ‘rest of us’ look bad, and for misleading people to think that everyone in the gay community is as deviant(?). Sigh. One gay man even told me that “people like [me] who are out don’t understand the need for discretion.” This boy doesn’t want to be defined by his sexuality, and so he will not present himself in a way that marks him as homosexual. (I chuckled as the four of us walked home together, because I’m not sure where any of them got the idea that they could pass for straight.) Someone also mentioned that it is necessary to respect Jamaican society and cultural values. Of course, by this point I was about to explode. Why should we respect a cultural standard that renders us outcasts? What is so wrong with challenging hegemony? - Video: The two faces of Jamaican gay life (2011). - Conference aims to facilitate informed opinion on sexuality in Jamaica and the Caribbean (2011).

The Status of Homosexuals in Jamaica (2008). - 'Gay Eradication Day' imposed by Jamaican town (2009). - University thesis seeks to explain homophobia in dancehall reggae (2009). - Gay Jamaican officer speaks out (2008): A Jamaican police officer says he's living in fear after coming out as a gay man and hopes to come to Canada where he can safely speak up on behalf of other gay Jamaicans. Michael Hayden, who has been on the police force for four years, said other officers routinely attacked and abused him after becoming suspicious of his sexual orientation.But after speaking out publicly about the problem in The Jamaica Star newspaper this month, the 24-year-old Hayden said he began receiving death threats... - Jamaica: Amnesty International condemns homophobic violence (2007).

To be gay in Jamaica "to be dead" (2007): Amnesty International has publicly condemned recent episodes of violence in Jamaica, the latest at a church on Easter Sunday, against people who are perceived to be gay.- Jamaica To Appoint Civilian Monitor In Gay Murder Probe (2005). - Four Arrested In Gay Jamaican AIDS Worker Murder (2003). - The Most Homophobic Place on Earth? (2006) Brian wears sunglasses to hide his gray and lifeless left eye—damaged, he says, by kicks and blows with a board from Jamaican reggae star Buju Banton. Brian, 44, is gay, and Banton, 32, is an avowed homophobe whose song Boom Bye-Bye decrees that gays "haffi dead" ("have to die"). - ‘I Have Not Been Accepted By My Family’: What it's like to grow up gay in Jamaica, where bigotry is widespread (2007, Alternate Link). - Jamaica gay attacks spur attack on rationality (2007). - A Bashing in Jamaica (2007): This is hatred. Set someone apart. Make them “other.” Make them less than human. This is where it leads. This is what it looks like. Warning: The images and video below the fold are disturbing and violent. - Gay rights and wrongs (2007). - Exploding homosexual myths (2007). - Another trial, more gay violence allegations (2006): RJR94FM radio is reporting tonight that Donald "Zeeks" Phillips, who is on trial for the alleged killings of two men in Kingston, is denying that he is a gay man, or that he killed the two men, much less that he forced the two men to "commit homosexual acts before he murdered them."

Jamaica, Island of Hate (2006). - Jamaica's Queer Obsession (2005): Is it all that's holding the country together? Google the words "gay" or "homosexual" at the daily national Jamaica Observer and you'll find articles like "Help! my man is bi-sexual" or "Emergency! My girlfriend/wife is a lesbian." Letters to the editor regularly claim in graphic, overwrought terms that homosexuals are destroying Jamaica. Even when the concerns of LGBT people are reported, activists are often lampooned. The relentlessly hostile media reinforces the homophobia on the street, where queers face everything from taunts to machetes. - Gay rights activists clash over tackling Jamaican homophobia (2005). - Anti-Gay Climate Breeding Violence in Jamaica (2005): Fatal attacks, popular song lyrics and a human rights report spotlight the Caribbean island's hostile attitude toward homosexuality.

Jamaica, global transformation and the gay lobby (2007): Opposition Leader Bruce Golding would have surprised no one with his assertion in yesterday's Sunday Observer that his Jamaica Labour Party (JLP) will not attempt to remove Jamaica's anti-gay laws should they win political power in the upcoming elections. Any such attempt at this juncture in Jamaica's history would be tantamount to political suicide. The anti-homosexual sentiment among Jamaicans and much of the Caribbean runs across all social classes and all sectors. It is deeply ingrained - embedded in our culture and traditions. - “Battybwoys affi dead”: Action against homophobia in Jamaica (2004). - Batty Boy (Wikipedia). - HIV/AIDS Risk Mapping Study of Men Who Have Sex With Men in Jamaica (2003).

Reggae singer backs gay rights: Rastafarian tells The Voice why he has released reggae’s first pro gay album (2011): A US based singer has decided to taken on broken one of reggae’s biggest taboos by making an album that supports gay rights. Jamaican-born Mista Mahaj P, who lives in Oakland, California, released the album called Tolerance last month, telling The Voice he did so in a bid to tackle homophobia and hypocritical attitudes about the issue among people in his native Jamaica and elsewhere in the world. He said having lived away from Jamaica for years, he decided to “set the record straight” after being barraged by stereotypical comments that wrongly painted all Jamaicans as people who hate gays.. - Homophobic Violence on the Increase in Jamaica (2011): More than fifty men and women who identify as lesbian, gay or bisexual have faced various human rights violations between January and June. 

"Murder Inna Dancehall" Website (Homophobia in Dancehall Music): "... Rastafarians, followers of the Old Testament, cannot deal with homosexuality, as is true in many other religions. Over the years, the biblical concept has been prominent in their music, but dancehall singers have taken this to a completely new level. They now promote discrimination and violence towards gays and lesbians. When they sing about male homosexuality, they use street terms such as "Mauma Man" (Maama Man), "Fassy Hole" (or simply "Fassy"), "Faggot," "Fishman," "Funny Man," "Freaky Man," "Poop Man," "Bugger Man," and the most commonly used, "Batty Man" (butt man) and "Chi Chi Man" (chi chi, in Jamaica, is the slang for vermin). For women they use: "Sodomite", "Chi Chi Gal" or simply 'Lesbian." I believe the majority of dancehall singers are not Rastafarians,but some seem to be strict followers of the Rasta faith. The Rastafarian movement has evolved into four, main distinct groups over the years: the Orthodox Rasta, the Nyahbinghi Order, the Twelve Tribes Of Israel and the Bobo Shanti. Some say that homosexuality is a Babylonian disease brought to the Caribbean by the white conquerors, and that it must be eradicated. They condemn it, as expressed by Judgement Day, to be thrown in fire. The Bobo Shanti seem to be the group that have the strictest views on homosexuality, and the way to deal with it. The Bobo Shanti, which include popular dancehall singers such as Sizza, Capleton and Anthony B, condemn everything that doesn’t go along with their beliefs: “Fire pon politicians, Fire pon Vatican, Fire pon chi chi man...” Singers defend themselves in interview by saying that it’s a "spiritual fire." Jamaican strong homophobia can be partly explained by the following factors: a society in which the majority of the population live in extreme poverty, and in which religion and machismo are very prevalent..." - Jamaica: Reggae Stars Renounce Homophobia (2007). - Top Jamaican singers have signed a deal to renounce homophobic hatred and halt 'murder music' - but do they really mean it? (2007). - Reclaiming Jamaica's gay past: cross-dressing pirate heroes and gay-friendly reggae gods -- true Caribbean culture contradicts the homophobia of dancehall music (2005).

Anti-Gay Reggae Performer Charged In Hate Attack (2005). - Murder Music Campaign Suspended as Truce Offered to Gay Activists (2005): The campaign against music that incites violence towards lesbian and gay people could be on the verge of halting today, after organisers agreed to a new partnership with representatives of the reggae industry. - ‘Murder Music’ Star Jailed (2005). - Stay Out of Our Bedrooms! Homosexuals Weigh in on Gay Debate (2004): Members of Jamaica’s homosexual community have added their voice to recent calls for the island’s buggery laws to be repealed, saying Jamaicans are being hypocritical on the issue. “We really are a very sexual nation, just like anybody else, and we have everything here,” said a Jamaican lesbian who writes poetry and stories under the name Adreana Ingram. “Jamaicans are privately tolerant and publicly intolerant because they have to save face. I am just sick and tired of the hypocrisy.” - Lesbian Activists in Jamaica Tell Horror Stories (2005, Alternate Link). - Jamaican juggernaut: the new cochair of Jamaica's only gay rights group says he isn't deterred by his country's abusive police and angry mobs (2005).

Murder Inna Dancehall: DAVID AUERBACH CHIFFRIN (general secretary for An Nou Alle!, a LGBT organisation for Martinique, Guadeloupe & French Guyana)
LGBT people from the French overseas territories or from sub-saharan Africa are particularly exposed to homophobia (and to hatreds associated with transxexualism or AIDS), as well as to sexually transmitted diseases and the risk of suicide for the following reasons. (1) The machismo and sexism current in society; (2) Pressure from extended families; (3) Religious commentaries derived from a literal reading of the Bible or Koran; (4) Political commentaries claiming that minority sexual (or gender) orientations were perversions introduced by former colonists or slave-owners; (5) Taboos surrounding the mere mention of sex and sexuality; (6) The need for scapegoats; (7) Racism, which affects every LGBT people of color. (the following text in French by the same author is more profound analysis of homophobia in the Caribbean). [French text translated by Google].
- Le Dance-Hall aux Antilles : Entre homophobie et mysogynie  (2006, Translation).

Amnesty International (Caribbean) removes paper documenting Jamaican anti-gay violence in early 2000 (2011): In January 2004, around 30,000 people attended a huge stage show and Rastafarian celebration, Rebel Salute, in St. Elizabeth, Jamaica. Some of Jamaica's most celebrated artists were present. Throughout the night, Capleton, Sizzla and others sang almost exclusively about gay men. Using the derogatory terms for gay men - "chi chi men" or "battybwoys" they urged the audience to "kill dem, battybwoys haffi dead, gun shots pon dem... who want to see dem dead put up his hand" (kill them, gay men have got to die, gun shots in their head, whoever wants to see them dead, put up your hand). Elephant Man, Bounty Killer, Beenie Man, TOK, and Capleton are amongst the stars who have written lyrics variously urging the shooting, burning, rape, stoning and drowning of gay people. From Buju Banton's Boom Bye Bye, which threatened "batty boys" with "ah gunshot in ah head", to Beenie Man's "I'm dreaming of a new Jamaica, come to execute all the gays" to Babycham & Bounty Killer's "Bun a fire pon a kuh pon mister fagoty, Ears ah ben up and a wince under agony, Poop man fi drown a dat a yawd man philosophy" (Burn gay men, til they wince under agony, gay men should drown, that's the yard man's philosophy), the exhortations to kill and maim seem to know no bounds....

HRW (2004). Hated to Death: Homophobia, Violence and Jamaica’s HIV/AIDS Epidemic. Human Rights Watch, 16(6) (B). PDF Download. On June 9, 2004, Brian Williamson, Jamaica’s leading gay rights activist, was murdered in his home, his body mutilated by multiple knife wounds. Within an hour after his body was discovered, a Human Rights Watch researcher witnessed a crowd gathered outside the crime scene. A smiling man called out, “Battyman [homosexual] he get killed!” Many others celebrated Williamson’s murder, laughing and calling out, “let’s get them one at a time,” “that’s what you get for sin,” “let’s kill all of them.” Some sang “boom bye bye,” a line from a popular Jamaican song about killing and burning gay men... Homophobia in Jamaica and its role in driving the HIV/AIDS epidemic: Violence against men who have sex with men, ranging from verbal harassment to beatings, armed attacks, and murder, is pervasive in Jamaica.13 Physical attacks against gay men and men perceived to engage in homosexual conduct are often accompanied by expressions of intent to kill the victim, such as “Battyman fi dead” [gay men must die].14 They are reluctant to appeal to the police for protection, as police routinely deny them assistance, fail to investigate complaints of homophobic violence, and arrest or detain men whom they suspect of being gay. In some cases, the police attack them and promote homophobic violence by others...

The bodies of two Jamaican women, who were allegedly having a lesbian relationship, were found in a ditch last week (2006). - They were lesbians: Was it Forbidden Love between lesbians that cost two young women their lives? Statements to the police and evidence at the murder scene of two women in their 20s strongly suggests this. - Jamaica waits on lesbian murder investigation (2006). - Lesbian Murder in Jamaica *2006). - Anti-gay action gets reaction: Sandra Rodrigues and her girlfriend, Stephanie Perez, were denied service at the Tedeschi’s at 684 Centre St. last month, for displaying affection too openly for the store clerk’s taste... A representative from Tedeschi’s told the Gazette last week the organization has investigated the incident and taken “appropriate action.” - Gay Congregation Sparks Threats in Jamaica: A Florida clergyman from a church that has founded a gay and lesbian congregation in Jamaica appeared recently as a radio guest on Caribbean radio station WAVS AM 1170, only to be met with threats from Jamaican callers-including one warning that he risked a bullet through the head should he return to Jamaica. - Jamaican Lesbian Denied Asylum (2007). - Report on Persecution of Sexual Minorities in Jamaica (2003, PDF Download).

Jamaica, beware of homosexual backlash (2007): Whether Jamaica likes it or not, the homosexual issue is very much on the nation's agenda, and we had better pay close attention. The past week, the media carried the story of a Canadian group that decided to cancel its conference in Jamaica because of our buggery laws, citing its concern for the safety and well-being of it members in light of public attacks against homosexuals. - Anti-Gay Jamaica Gets Bad Press (2007). - MCC Responds to Escalation of Anti-Gay Violence in Jamaica (2007). - Trade Unions Urge End To Gay Persecution in Jamaica at Cardiff Mardi Gras (2007). - Troubled island (2006): In Jamaica, where politicians are openly homophobic and song lyrics incite violence against gay people, coming out can be fatal. Gary Younge investigates. - BBC Documentary: Gay in Jamaica (2008).

Large number of gay cops (2007): Like their counterparts in many other parts of the world, Jamaican cops are learning to live with a large and growing number of gay and lesbian colleagues, in a profession known to be typically hard on homosexuals. - Jamaican Police Fire Teargas Into Mob Attacking 'Gay Men' (2007): Three men who had bleached out their faces and wore in tight jeans and cut-off shirts were cornered in a drug store for more than an hour by several dozen men yelling homophobic remarks. The crowd swelled to more than 2,000 people the Kingston Observer reports. As the mob became more threatening, there were yells of "kill them" along with gay slurs and demands the three be sent out "to face justice"... "Jamaica has lost its way if men think they can openly flaunt being gay without any consequences. We don't want that kind of open gay life in this country," the she said. - Gay leader escapes St. Valentine's Gay Lynch Mob (2007): A St. Valentine’s Day homophobic lynch mob of more than 200 in the Kingston, Jamaica suburb of St. Andrew’s Parish chased and assaulted three men presumed to be gay and threatened to kill them -- and the leader of the gay rights organization J-FLAG (Jamaican Forum for Lesbians, All-Sexuals, and Gays) was repeatedly and viciously assaulted by police when he went to the aid of the three alleged homosexuals targeted by the angry mob.

Jamaican Students Riot, Try To Kill Gay Student (2006). - Jamaican extricated from anti-gay mob (2006): A young Jamaican man is in police custody after being targeted in an anti-gay attack at the University of West Indies campus. The man, whose name has not been released, allegedly approached a student Tuesday evening on campus and made sexual advances. A group of students gathered and began attacking the man, and reportedly chased and hurled rocks at him. - The state of Jamaican homosexuality: fear or disgust? (2006) - Jamaican Bishop (2007): "I will fight homosexuality and lesbianism with every fiber of my being!" - In Jamaica, fatal attacks push homophobia into the open (2005). - Revisiting My Ugly Reaction (2006): Being called gay [a battyman] in Jamaica is one of the worst things that someone can be accused of (2006).. - Land of Reggae and Homophobia: Jamaica's intolerant attitude toward gays runs counter to its unofficial motto, 'No problem, mon.' - Homophobia in Jamaica (2005).

Growing up gay in Jamaica (2004): The homophobic lyrics of Jamaican reggae stars have hit the headlines, but what is the reality of being gay in a society where it is illegal to practise your sexuality? - Recreational lesbianism in Jamaica: but humour aside most of the jamaicans that i spoke with adopted a 'live and let live' philosophy on the whole gay/lesbian issue. although nearly always paraphrased with "as long as they don't try it on with me". - Reclaiming Jamaica's gay past: cross-dressing pirate heroes and gay-friendly reggae gods—true Caribbean culture contradicts the homophobia of dancehall music.

Dangerous Spots for Gay Travel: Interview with David Kirby (1999). - Grave violencia contra homosexuales (2004, Translation). - Gays Living in Fear (2004). - If You’re Gay in Jamaica, You’re Dead (2004, Alternate Link). - Jamaica's Gays: Protection from Homophobes Urgently Needed, Mob Violence/Police Torture Reported by Amnesty International, Gay Men and Lesbians are Being Beaten, Cut, Burned and Shot (2004). - Amnesty International wants Jamaica to protect gays (2004).  - MTV bars Beenie Man as gays plan protest (2004). - One love? Uproar over anti-gay lyrics stirs controversy in the birthplace of reggae (2004). - Black Gays Should Stop Beenie Man (2004). - Casting the first stone! Policing of Homo/Sexuality in Jamaican Popular Culture (Abstract: PDF Download). - Jamaica: Queer in a Culture of Violence: Cops are deadly, politicians corrupt, the people poor, but musicians sing, "Kill the fags, burn the sissies." (2003).

Leading gay rights activist found murdered in Jamaica (2004). - The Death & Light Of Brian Williamson (2004). - Slain Jamaican gay leader honoured in London (2004). - Do We Forget Before We Remember? (2004). - PM Patterson accused of collusion with anti-gay violence (2004). - Gay rights activist's killer gets life (2006). - Father encourages students to maul 'gay' son at Dunoon Technical High School (2004): "In notoriously homophobic Jamaica gay men can hardly expect protection even from their parents - as was made very clear recently. A father, concerned that his son might be gay, turned up at the Dunoon Park Technical High School in east Kingston and apparently encouraged other students to beat the boy, an eleventh grader. "Them bruck up desk and bench and beat him up badly," one Dunoon student told the Observer. "Him get nuff lick, box, kick and thump from boy and girl." The boy's name was withheld by school officials and the extent of his injuries was not immediately known. But whatever they were, it would have been worse were it not for the intervention of ancillary staff. According to students and teachers at the school, the boy's father apparently found pictures of nude men in the boy's school bag..." -  Chilling Call to Murder as Music Attacks Gays: Jamaican rights activist's death is officially said to be motivated by robbery, but campaigners point to pop-fueled homophobia (2004).

Jamaica: Homophobic Atmosphere Grows Fierce (1999). - Jamaica: Big Tourist Dollar Loss in Store for Bigots (1999). - Jamaican Church Leaders Protest Gay Pop Group N/A. - Caribbean Bishops Oppose Jamaica Proposal on Gays (2001). - Jamaica is the most hostile island toward homosexuals in the Caribbean. - Jamaica: Gays Fighting to Get out of the Closet N/A  - "Paradise" Can Be an Ordeal for Gays (1999). - Jamaica says will not abolish ban on homosexuality (1998). - Doctor makes case for legalising homosexuality, prostitution N/A (2002). - Jamaica: Accounts of Anti-gay Violence: Lesbians and gay men describe harassment, assaults, and murder (2003, Alternate Link). - Gays gain ground (2003). - Violence Forces Gay Jamaican Men to Seek Asylum Overseas (2002). - Paradise Lost: Struggling to be gay in the land of 'one love' (1999). 

Jamaican Bishops Protest Civil Rights Reform (2001): "Roman Catholic bishops in the Caribbean have protested against recommendations that Jamaica decriminalize sex between consenting  adult males, calling such behavior immoral..." - 'I was born this way' (2001).  - Gays in Jamaica - Sexual orientation: Is there a conclusion? (2001). - Bisexual woman struggles with identity (2001). - Homophobia remains high: Gays remain in seclusion, health officials worry Homophobia (2001). - Homos at risk (2001): " Homosexuals are increasingly becoming the targets of hate crimes in Jamaica but are afraid to press charges against their assailants for fear of bringing attention to their lifestyle." - Homosexuality to remain illegal in Jamaica N/A (2002). - Taking a Stand Against Homophobic Violence (2001). 

Fear Among Gay Men Said to Fuel HIV/AIDS Cases (2002): "High levels of discrimination and the threat of violence force male homosexuals to ''fit in" by having sex with women, increasing the risk of females becoming infected with HIV, says Yitades Gebre, head of the national HIV programme." - Anti-gay hate fuels Jamaica HIV crisis (2004). - A Cultural approach to HIV/AIDS prevention and care: Jamaica's Experience (1999, PDF Download). - Jamaica at the Crossroads (2002). - HIV and HTLV-I infection among homosexual and bisexual men in Kingston, Jamaica (1989). - Speaking out: sexual minorities in Jamaica use panel presentations to educate the public (2004): Violent homophobia permeates Jamaican culture. Discrimination exists with impunity. Under these conditions, the MSM population remains hidden and aloof. Most LGBT people assume a heterosexual lifestyle for public consumption, but pursue same-sex relationships in private. They routinely fail to disclose their orientation to health care providers. As a result, appropriate healthcare cannot be administered, placing the entire public at greater risk of contracting HIV.

Adolescent MSM in Jamaica: HIV Risk, Homophobia, and Gender Stereotypes in Relationships (2006, PPT Download, Alternate Link): UNAIDS report that the prevalence rate for Jamaica in the 15-49 age group is 1.5 [0.8 – 2.4] %. From 1994-1996 the HIV prevalence in major urban areas for men who have sex with men (MSM) ranged from 30% to 67%. - Hated to Death: Homophobia, Violence and Jamaica’s HIV/AIDS Epidemic (2004, PDF Download). - Homosexuality and HIV/AIDS stigma in Jamaica (Full Text).- Lecturer labels Jamaica as Anti-Gay at AIDS Conference (2008). - Jamaican Laws Against Homosexuality Helps Spread AIDS (2009).

Situational Homosexuality or Behavioral Bisexuality ... a recap ... subsequent discourse so far (2001): With the recent discourse on the issue locally at fora held across the island and a bloggers' lyme I thought I'd repost this important part of the equation often left out on the public discourse on homosexuality in Jamaica, it is also sad to think we have so many gays and lesbians in the psychiatric and psychological communities who are not helping us and by extension the public to understand what are the differences in the same gender loving arena. The open biphobia coming from the lesbian and MSM (men who have sex with men) communities is frightening to me and it deserves some serious interventions if not at least the commencement of the discourse...

Teenage boys and the sex trade - A tragedy in waiting? (2002) "Within Kingston and St. Andrew's fancy houses and hotels, and outside along those daytime busy streets, twilight hides a sombre reality: scores of boys below the age of 19 years, frolicking with men two or three times their age in exchange for money...  He, however, explained that this activity mainly takes place in the Kingston and Montego Bay area, but should not be seen as sex workers in the strict sense. According to him, sex workers are persons whose main occupation is transactional sex.But regardless of whether they are sex workers or not, health workers believe the activities of the boys can cause serious long-term health problems, apart from STIs... "Many are afraid to stop it - some say they are born this way and some are being programmed. We try to counsel them, but it all boils down to money," Nurse Holly Alvaranga of the Glen Vincent Clinic said."

"’Boom Bye-Bye in a Batty Boy Head’: Reggae Icons, Jamaican Culture, and Homophobia." (2001).  - A Culture of Intolerance: Insights on the Chi Chi Man Craze and Jamaican Gender Relations with Julius Powell of JFLAG (2002). - Jamaican pastors say 'no' to gay bishop (2003). - Smile Jamaica: Won’t you help to sing another song of freedom? (2003). - Thomas Glave Speaks at Cooper House (2001): "Author, professor, and social justice activist Thomas Glave spoke about founding the Jamaica Forum of Lesbians, All-Sexuals, and Gays (J-FLAG) to a standing-room-only crowd at the Cooper House on Friday, February 9th. During his Friday evening discussion, titled "Gay Murder, Race and Class," Glave talked in general terms about life in Jamaica and about the violence gays and lesbians face in the country...." - A Trip Into Gay Jamaica (2004).

Jamaican artistes heckled by gay rights group at Mobo Awards (2002): "Members of the British gay rights group OutRage! who heckled Jamaican artistes in London, Tuesday, also found themselves on the receiving end of some arsh punishment." - Dancehall burning itself (2002): "Homosexuality, rather, anti-homosexuality stances, are raved about on-stage here in Jamaica because it is one surefire way to ensure a 'forward' and earn the screams of the crowd. This sort of thinking is extremely short-sighted and does not serve to provide any sort of longevity for the careers of those involved. In addition, Jamaica's international reputation, which is already beset by exaggerations of violence, is ill-served by such songs." - Homophobia Rife In Jamaica (2002). - Jamaican Gays Fight Back (2002).

Jamaica at the Crossroads (2002): "It's well-known that Jamaican men find using a condom extremely 'un-manly'. Jamaica is also, and this goes for several of the Caribbean countries, a society rich in hypermasculine attitudes and values. A real man has several girlfriends - baby mothers, they are called - and preferably children with all of them. All in all, there is a toughness in Jamaican society, and this is especially true for metropolitan Kingston - for decades a magnet for the unemployed and landless poor. This roughness is also very evident in attitudes towards gays and lesbians. Homosexuality is extremely despised in Jamaica, and there is still a law in force against 'buggery' or anal intercourse, which is used as a weapon to target and harass gays. The buggery law also functions as a formidable obstacle to those who want to limit the transmission of HIV." - Gay boys get a beating. - Welcoming Congregation Resolution Passed: "First Church in Jamaica Plain Unitarian-Universalist took a dramatic step forward in affirming gay, lesbian, bisexual and transgender individuals by unanimously passing a resolution to become a "Welcoming Congregation"."

Prison Riot Inquiry in Jamaica Focuses on Gays N/A (1997): "Reuters reports a commission of inquiry looking into riots at Jamaica's two main prisons last August heard yesterday that regular sexual relations between guards and gay prisoners contributed to the three-day melee. The riots at Kingston's General Penitentiary and the St. Catherine district prison in Spanish Town claimed 16 lives between Aug. 20 and 23. All of the 16 prisoners killed in the riots were presumed to be gay." - Over 300 prisoners in St Catherine's District Prison, Spanish Town (2000). - Horror in Jamaica: 16 Men Burned and Stabbed to Death in Anti-Gay Prison Riots (1997). - Background, Homophobia in Jamaica and its role in driving the HIV/AIDS epidemic (2004): In 1997, the mere suggestion that a task force was considering whether condoms should be issued to inmates and staff as part of HIV/AIDS prevention efforts in prison prompted a violent rampage and derailed HIV education efforts for years.  After then Commissioner of Corrections John Prescod proposed that condoms be distributed to prisoners and correctional officers, correctional officers—apparently offended by the implication that by distributing condoms they, themselves, were also having sex with men—walked off their jobs.  The officers did not return for several days, until they received an apology from the Commissioner and an agreement that condoms would not be distributed in prisons.  Following the walkout by the correctional officers, inmates at two of Jamaica’s largest prisons rioted.  Sixteen prisoners were killed and more than fifty injured, apparently targeted because other prisoners believed that they were homosexuals. 

Jamaican gays flee to save their lives (2002): "Homophobia runs so deep in society that asylum can be the only chance of survival... Last week, it was revealed that David, 26, had been granted asylum in the UK on the basis that homophobia in Jamaica is so severe it represents a serious threat to his personal safety. The fate of gays reveals a deep strain of homophobia in Jamaican society... 'I can't find work - I had to leave my last job when my boss found out - and I can't find a home. It doesn't matter how much you try to hide it. If you are seen in certain places or with certain people, you get branded as gay. Once the torment starts, it never stops... David's experiences are equally terrifying. 'I was walking one night down a road where a lot of gay men go cruising. I was attacked by two men and stabbed. The knife went right through my back and came out my stomach. Two taxi drivers refused to take me to hospital. They told me: "You are a faggot, you cannot come with us or people will think we are gay too." I had to walk a mile to hospital, bleeding all the way. When I got there I had to lie and say I had been robbed otherwise I would not have got any treatment.'" - Jamaicans Win Gay Asylum Right (2002). - Asylum is granted to gay Jamaicans (2002).

On “Judgements”: Poverty, Sexuality-Based Violence and Human Rights in 21st Century Jamaica (By Robert Carr, Published in the Caribbean Journal of Social Work, 2, july 2003, PDF Download): "This article will examine poverty, social justice, human rights, homophobia and violence in contemporary Jamaican society and the relationships among these phenomena.   In the second half of 2002 three gay men were granted asylum in the United Kingdom (UK) on the premise that were they to be deported to Jamaica it would be tantamount to a death sentence (Thompson, 2002).  “Homophobia runs so deep in society” ran the subtitle of a report in The Observer, a UK-based newspaper, “that asylum can be the only chance of survival.”  “More than 30 gay men have been murdered in Jamaica in the past five years” the article continues. The article further reported, “a group of university students were almost beaten to death.” ... Both Royes (1992) and CAREC (2000) documented that many Caribbean MSM in their studies had married, had girlfriends, and had fathered children.  There was a sub-group that identified themselves as “women” and referred to each other as “she” and had sex with men only, but this was a minority (CAREC 2000). A major push factor for bisexual behaviour in men who would otherwise be gay was that homosexuality is so anathematised in the Caribbean, that men who might have otherwise identified as “gay” felt compelled to present themselves as heterosexual to the wider society... Nevertheless, in 2002, a series of articles in the same newspaper found that levels of intolerance remained high, and tied this intolerance to popular songs extolling the masculine virtues of shooting, killing and burning to death homosexual men, all within a context in which laws permit the harassment of effeminate men as common practice (Watson, 2002a; Watson 2002b).  Further, a Gleaner poll undertaken by Don Anderson found that nearly 96% of “all Jamaicans are strongly opposed to any move that would seek to legalise homosexual relations” (Gleaner Poll, 2001)... Methodology: The researcher gathered the data analysed in this study under conditions of privacy and anonymity to compile a series of testimonies.  The first method was through direct interviews.  The objective was to systematically obtain first-hand data about violence experienced within the MSM community... Three focus groups were held with the MSM community at which in participants shared their stories.  One participant was identified through these focus groups and his testimonial was documented.  The material from the focus groups themselves was not analysed for this study, although the information that emerged there supported the findings presented below...." - Testimonies: Prepared By The Jamaica Forum for Lesbians, All-Sexuals and Gays (J-FLAG) - In Collaboration With Robert Carr, PhD., The Department of Sociology, Psychology and Social Work, University of the West Indies: PDF Download (2003).

Cooper, Carolyn (2005). Sweet & Sour Saucw: Sexual Politics in Jamaican Dancehall Culture. The Sixth Jagan Lecture Presented at York University on October 22, 2005. CERLAC Colloquia Paper. PDF Download. In this paper, Carolyn Cooper explores sexual politics in Jamaican dancehall culture, arguing transgressively for the freedom of women to claim a self-pleasuring sexual identity that may even be explicitly homoerotic. She analyzes particular contemporary music and movements of Jamaican women in dancehalls, and explores the credentialising of sexual orientation in Jamaican culture.

Murray, David AB (2005). Who's Right? Human Rights, Sexuality and Social Change in the Caribbean. Salises Seminar Series No. 6. PDF Download.  Furthermore, I think there are problems inherent in the language of some international human rights organizations’ reports in their tendency to over-simplify and misrepresent what are in fact complicate and contested issues and experiences grounded in different political, historical and cultural contexts. For example, when the HRW report speaks of a ‘culture of homophobia or hatred’ in Jamaica, it does a disservice to many Jamaicans who are supportive, neutral or non-committal in their attitudes towards homosexuality, nor does it address how sexual behaviour or the relationships between sexuality, gender, private and public domains, race and class operate differently in different spaces and places across Jamaica. Or to put it slightly differently, the report shoots itself in the foot through its uniform condemnation and oversimplification of Jamaican society, and its implication that solutions must be imposed according to supposedly ‘international’ standards of human rights.

Lewis RA, Carr R (2009). Gender, sexuality and exclusion: Sketching the outlines of the Jamaican popular nationalist project. CRGS: Caribbean Review of Gender Studies, 3. PDF Download. Abstract: “Inevitably, the underprivileged carve out for themselves spaces which they hegemonise”. - Figueroa, 1998. -- In recent years, with some notoriety, there has been a vibrant debate in Jamaica over the boundaries and contours of national identity in relation to sexuality and fundamental rights and freedoms. It has involved a broad spectrum of participants, from clergy to dancehall artistes and academics; from journalists and the political elite to the leaders of the private sector. At the heart of the debate lie controversies over what constitutes “Jamaicanness” and what may be tolerated under the category of “rights” within Jamaican society. The debate has been taking place in a context where physical violence against persons deemed to have violated national mores has occurred. Chief among the violators are sexual minorities, portrayed as deviants in a nationalist paradigm that is extensively influenced if not defined by Jamaican popular culture (cf. Human Rights Watch 2004).

Larcher AA, Robinson C (2009). Fighting ‘Murder Music’: Activist Reflections. CRGS: Caribbean Review of Genser Studies, 3. PDF Download. Editor’s Note: Debates about the meanings of, and how to respond to, “murder music” have raged for as long as some forms of Jamaican dancehall have been afforded this tag for their promotion of violence against gays. British gay activist and OutRage! cofounder Peter Tatchell has been a driving force behind efforts to stop production and distribution of music by artists such as Beenie Man, Sizzla and Elephant Man through the “Stop Murder Music” (SMM) campaign, which has since been adopted or supported by over 60 organizations worldwide. SMM and similar campaigns have been championed by some advocates of social justice and denounced by others as “racist” for their representations of black cultures. For this edition of CRGS, I invited two activists who have been engaged in this work to share and explain their experiences with and points of view of Murder Music campaigns: Saint Lucian-born and now Canadian-resident Akim Ade Larcher, who founded the Canadian chapter of SMM, and Trinidad-based Colin Robinson.—Andil Gosine.

Pinnock AMN (2007). “A Ghetto Education Is Basic”: (Jamaican) Dancehall Masculinities As Counter-Culture. The Journal of Pan African Studies, 1(9): 47-84. PDF Download.  Jamaica’s intense homophobia is also explained in such a context. I concur, in this regard, with Hope’s (2004) ‘femiphobia’ thesis where she argues that the construction of the female body is a key part of how Dancehall defines its concepts of masculinity. Both are inter-related. This is synonymous with Dancehall’s own brand/definition of the Jamaican ‘nation’ wherein “femaleness” is considered a dangerous ‘state of affairs’. Accordingly, the “punaany” (vagina) has to be conquered as a demonstrable way of mastering sex and sexual knowledge and power in the wider society... The validity of the criticisms of the ghetto, therefore, is revealed as questionable in such an instance, as it makes, too obvious (apparently) the ways in which one is related to the other. Discretion, therefore, is a far more useful tool for negotiating such delicate transactions, as far as this reading of the controversial TOK hit would seem to suggest. These emasculating monikers – chi-chi man, batty man, fish and others, represent, then, a means of discrediting such men, publicly, as well as whipping up necessary support for their physical and psychic destructionxi...

Jamaica Forum For Lesbians All-Sexuals and Gays Faces Closure (2004): "Fortunately, the Jamaica Forum for Lesbians, All-Sexuals and Gays (J-FLAG) will continue its efforts, begun in 1998, to promote legal reforms for the protection of sexual minorities, to educate the public about the brutal anti-gay violence and lack of recourse to the law that is an everyday occurrence, and to serve the needs of the gay community through social and educational programming. J-FLAG is at a crossroads, however, and we are faced with closure. In October, we will lose our ability to retain even a single staff member to do the basic work of the organization. Much of our programming is done by volunteers, but we cannot continue to enhance this work without staff. We are therefore appealing to our supporters for assistance to help us raise US$24,000.00 which will cover the salaries of a full-time Programme Director and an Administrative Assistant for the next year. This modest amount will provide critical short-term support as the organization strengthens its successful programming, and focuses more energy on fund-raising activities. Without this support, the following programming is in jeopardy: ...."

Queer Islands?’ symposium will offer opportunity to discuss gay, lesbian life in Caribbean literature (2005). - Reading Queer Caribbean Identities: Faizal Deen’s land without chocolate and the Gay Caribbean Canon (2006).

GLBT Caribbean Travel (2011): Even though some of the islands of the Caribbean have a reputation for homophobia (Jamaica is a prime example), for most of the islands, once there are no public displays of affection (PDA), most people look the other way and are generally comfortable and friendly with gay and lesbian travelers... Generally speaking, when traveling in the Caribbean, once gay and lesbian travelers remember the PDA rule and all should be well! ... Jamaica is well known for it's homophobia, but the island does have a thriving gay community and several gay friendly hotels..

Resource Links: - The Jamaica Forum of Lesbians, All-Sexuals & Gays (J-FLAG). - National AIDS Committee of Jamaica. - Gay Jamaica Watch. - GLBTQ Jamaica Blog. - Gay Lesbian Bisexual Trans-gender & Queer Jamaica. - Murder Inna Dacehall: In this section, I will provide information found on the Internet connected to dancehall and Jamaican homophobia from 1976 to present time. - Homosexualidad en Jamaica (Translation). - The Gully: Gay Cuba Articles Listing. - Search GayToday.com Archives.

Global Gayz: Caribbean: Jamaica. Jamaica News Reports from 1999 to the Present. - Anthony's Story: Gay in Jamaica. - ILGA: Jamaica. - LGBT rights in Jamaica. - Sodomy Laws: Jamaica. - The International Encyclopedia of Sexuality: Jamaica Not Included.

FRee Forum Online (Numerous Articles): No. 1 choice in the fight against AIDS, for men who have sex with men (MSM) and Gay communities in the Caribbean (To 2009). - FRee Forum Issues: #1: Pride 2002. - # 2: World AIDS Day, 2002. - #3: Carnival 2003. - #4: Pride 2003. - #5: World AIDS Day 2003. # 6: Carnival 2004.  - #7: Prde 2004.  #8: World AIDS Day 2004. - # 9: Pride 2005. - # 10: Pride 2005: Advocacy & Human Rights in the Caribbean. - # 11: World AIDS Day 2005: Keeping the Promise. - # 12: What's Your Position: Caribbean Men & HIV. - # 13: Pride 2006. - # 14: World AIDS Day 2006. - # 15: Health & Social issues for the Men who have Sex with Men Communities in the Caribbean. - # 16: Pride 2007. - # 17: World AIDS Day 2007. - # 18: Carnival 2008. - # 19: Pride 2008 - United by Pride = Bound by Equity.  - # 20: Treatment and Care 2008. - # 21: Prevention 2009: Steps Toward Personal Change.  - # 22: Human Rights & Advocacy: Chances to Change, 2009.

MSMGF News Articles & Documents Resources. By Region & Country:  - Caribbean: - Jamaica

Blabbeando Blog: Latin American GLBTQ News / Commentaries: 2005 to Present.


To "The SEARCH Section" For The Best Search Engines & Information Directories, The Searchable Sites to Locate Papers & Abstracts... and The Sites - Some Searchable - Where "Free Papers" Are Available!  
 

TRINIDAD & TOBAGO (Wikipedia): Homophobia 'rife in T&T' (2011). - Homophobia, society effects and way forward (2011). - LGBT Community of Trinidad and Tobago Call for End to Homophobia (2011). - New politics means respect rights of all (2011): Some history was made on Tuesday as a core activist group speaking on behalf of Trinidad and Tobago's gay and transgender citizens held a march in Port of Spain to mark International Day Against Homophobia and Transphobia. Under the banner of the Coalition for Inclusion of Sexual Orientation, (Caiso) participants in that small, quiet demonstration visited Government ministries and delivered messages advancing the cause of constitutional and legal recognition of sexual orientation as a ground of discrimination on par with race, sex, religion and national origin. It's also historic that the Caiso group reported meeting only "a little hostility'' which, optimistically, might signify a progressive public acceptance of the equality rights applicable to all citizens, regardless of sexual orientation. - CAISO Reporting back from Trinidad and Tobago's first IDAHO  (2011). - In Trinidad and Tobago, first pro-gay legislation enacted (2011). - Trinidad and Tobago debates same-sex unions (2011). - Gay debate comes out of the closet (2011): Denying gay and lesbian couples the right to marry and enjoy spousal benefits is a violation of the International Convention of Human Rights, head of the Caribbean Centre for Human Rights, Diana Mahabir-Wyatt has said.

Trapped: Homosexuality in Trinidad and Tobago (2011). - Local gays cry discrimination (2011). - Gays bash Govt on same-sex marriage (2011). - Sexual rights are human rights (2011): It is heartening that the question of the rights of gay, lesbian, bisexual and transgender (GLBT) people has been so much in the news since the topic of same-sex marriage was raised in the Senate on February 15, 2011. That discussion in the Upper House came during a debate on the Statutory Authorities Amendment Bill, as senators noted there was a need for discussion of same-sex marriage given that our country does not recognise even common law marriages of people of the same sex. - Trini gets US asylum after gay persecution claim (2011). - Belize Transgender Claims Mistreatment In Trinidad & Tobago (2011). - LGBT in Trinidad and Tobago ask government for equal rights (2011). - About those gay rights (2011). - Homophobic T&T: One Foot in the Closet (2010). - Christian Groups in Trinidad Vow to Fight Homosexuality (2010). - In Trinidad and Tobago, youth and faith join hands to fight homophobia (2010).

It's about homosexuals and the law, not religion (2011): The decriminalisation of homosexuality should have nothing to do with religion, says Dr Gabrielle Hosein, lecturer at the Institute for Gender and Developmental Studies at the University of the West Indies in St Augustine. Hosein said while religious organisations are ready to hold their own positions based on religious texts, those religious positions should not be applied to persons who do not share those religious views. "We are living in a multicultural society, so we need to live in a society where the views of different persons are not necessarily imposed on others," Hosein said in a telephone interview on Thursday. Her comments came one day after Colin Robinson, spokesman for the Coalition Advocating for the Inclusion of Sexual Orientation (CAISO), called on the Government to adopt a policy of equality for all, inclusive of those in the gay, lesbian, bisexual and transgender (GLBT) community...

Trinidad and Tobago - Amnesty International submission to the UN Universal Periodic Review, 12th session of the UPR Working Group, October 2011: Discrimination against lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender persons: Homosexual activity is criminalized in Trinidad and Tobago. Sections 13 and 16 of the Sexual Offences Act criminalise “buggery” (punishable with 25 years’ imprisonment when committed by one adult on another) and same-sex sexual intercourse qualifies as “serious indecency” (punishable with 5 years’ imprisonment when committed by same-sex persons of sixteen years of age or more). Also, paragraph 8 (1) (e) of the Immigration Act prohibits entry into Trinidad and Tobago of “prostitutes, homosexuals or persons living on the earnings of prostitutes or homosexuals, or persons reasonably suspected as coming to Trinidad and Tobago for these or any other immoral purposes”. Although these provisions are not enforced, they contribute to creating a discriminatory environment against lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender persons.

Gay Sub-Culture in T&T: The Social Network (2011): When you discuss the homosexual community in Trinidad, you are instantly bombarded by the religious mindset of the wider, Trinidadian culture. Some people automatically assume that the LGBT (Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender) community is full of immorality, promiscuity, sin, parties, drug users, AIDS and STD carriers, and criminals. But what is the LGBT community really like? What makes up this subgroup of our society? Are they really as nefarious, as is portrayed by those on the religious high ground? I took a walk on the wild side to see what the LGBT community was really all about, and it was an eye opener... While most of the groups within this subculture of society are private, restricted and ‘closeted’, there is one group that forges a path away from that ‘closeted’ status – generating public awareness about the needs and issues of the community. This group of brave and motivated individuals is called CAISO, which stands for the Coalition Advocating for Inclusion of Sexual Orientation... While it’s obvious that the gay community in Trinidad is growing, stereotypes still exist, especially the negative ones. Like straight people, gay people don’t just ‘get their freak on’, and, especially since they face way more stigma than other groups, creating their own support systems and lobbying for inclusion in national policies is their attempt to decrease these very stereotypes, and, in some cases, the violence they may face. We all may not agree on what we consider to be socially or morally acceptable where sexuality is concerned, but, as I’ve learnt, everyone’s lifestyle is different, and understanding the various subcultures in our society can help us to look beyond labels, and better understand the human experience.

Stirrings of a new LGBT movement in Trinidad and Tobago (2010): Anthony Morris and Judea Beatrice, study abroad students in Trinidad and Tobago, report on two LGBT rights protests and the potential beginnings of a new movement for The Socialist Worker. - In Trinidad, Putting Gays and Lesbians Lower Than Adulterers and Rapists (2010). - CAISO – seeking equal rights for gays, lesbians (2009): For those who know the anguish, shame and self-loathing that goes with caging your identity in the closet, the organisation Coalition Advocating for Inclusion of Sexual Orientation (CAISO) has emerged with the hopes of educating policymakers and pushing for policy reform. CAISO is of the view that the goal of Vision 2020 is obsolete if the Government continues to turn a blind eye to issues of gender identity and sexual orientation. CAISO which was formed a month ago, is one of the many incarnations of organisations representing members of the gay, lesbian, bisexual and transgender (GLBT) community in the country... - Anti-gay stigma in Trinidad and Tobago (2009).- Trinidad & Tobago’s Jennifer Banks is the New Gay Caribbean USA Queen (2010).

Gay Life in T&T: Many same-gender loving persons have attempted to follow the expectations of their families by trying to suppress their feelings, marrying, having children and generally appearing to be “straight”. This has led to many living double lives, more often than not, great unhappiness, and even suicide especially in the vulnerable teen age years. There are however, several examples of same-sex partnerships, both among male and female homosexuals in Trinidad and Tobago which include balanced parenting and stable and happy families.  Many outwardly open lesbians or gays, or those perceived to be lesbian or gay, have been taunted at school and in social settings. Expressions like ”bullerman”, “faggot”, “zammy”, “dyke”, “…. you rubbin’ donuts?” and of course the Jamaican “battiman”, are common. In the early days it was “Mako” and “Mako Mare”...

Victim of ‘public ridicule’ speaks out: ‘Give gays equal rights’ (2007, Alternate Link):  At 29 YEARS, Kennty Mitchell seems to have everything going for him. He is a striving entrepreneur, a community activist and is involved in a nine-year “common-law” relationship. Yet, he is put down by society and verbally and physically abused by many, including the police. Why? He is homosexual. Mitchell, however, is determined to keep his head up and refuses to be forced into living his life in secrecy and shame...  - A Proud Day (2007): The Archdeacon of Tobago doesn't want Elton John to perform at the Plymouth* Jazz festival. Because he's not a jazz singer? No, because he's gay. And because Trinidad and Tobago is not so great at keeping its laws up to date and has altogether too many religions, there are still laws on the books against sodomy: passed as recently as 1986, the law provides for up to 10 years in prison for homosexual acts between consenting adults (but if you are a minor, and you commit the act, it's only five years... how lenient!).

Elton John faces 'gay church ban' (2007): First it was the liberal Bishop of Chelmsford, John Gladwin. Now Sir Elton John is the latest to be hit by trouble over plans to visit the Caribbean island of Tobago. - Elton 'too gay' for Tobago (2007). - Deacon: Ban Elton John, He'll Make You Gay! (2007) - Gay man taunted by cops gets $28,400 (2007): A 29-year-old self-confessed homosexual has been awarded $28,400 as compensation for being kept naked at a police station for over three hours while police officers ridiculed him about the size of his penis. - 'To-bahg-o' gets blows on VH1: Comedians mock island over Elton John (2007). - Churches fail to ban Elton John from Tobago (2007).

School play deals with family issues (2006):  Diego Martin Government Secondary will be presenting a controversial play entitled Conflicted at the Little Carib Theatre, Woodbrook, from April 21- 23. The play deals with several issues, including adultery, abortion and homosexuality, the latter being the major issue. “But we are not dwelling on the abortion issue because others have done it. The big issue is homosexuality because many plays have not dealt with that,” said script writer Voughn Standford. - Gay life in Trinidad and Tobago is hard (2005).

Privacy rights for sexual orientation calmly take a small step forward in T&T (2011). - Trinidad and Tobago LGBT Community Call for Decriminalization of Homosexuality (2011). -  Gays in TT get legal protection (2004, Alternate Link). - Gays in Trinidad, Tobago granted some legal rights N/A (2004). - Islamic scholar in Trinidad wants antigay "Muslim villages" (2004). - Plan to establish Muslim only villages in Trinidad and Tobago causes outrage (2004). -  Islamic scholar in Trinidad wants antigay "Muslim villages" (2004). - Priest Causes Stir With Safe Sex Remarks (2002). - Trinidad transsexual praised for suing state (2001): In conservative Caribbean, transsexuals fight for rights.

Accused Killer Freed in Trinidad by Homophobic Judges (2002).  - Mahabir-Wyatt defends homosexual 'family' (1998, Must scroll to locate article): "" I don't know why people, immediately, jump on the homosexual relationships." - UNC fatwa (1998, Must scroll to locate article): "The Bill could also spell the end of Brigadier Alfonso's ban on gays in the defence force, and make him think twice before calling them, as he once did, cowards and weaklings..."

In conservative Caribbean, transsexuals fight for rights (2001): "De Souza, who had a sex change operation when she was 19, was recently awarded $5,000 by a High Court judge in an out-of-court settlement to pay for charges of unlawful arrest and police harassment. She is the first transsexual in Trinidad to sue the state for a violation of constitutional rights. Such suits are rare throughout the Caribbean where sexual minorities often stay silent about mistreatment for fear of reprisals..." - Lower the limbo bar: Celebrating diversity takes more than bending over backwards: "As a taste test, Horyzon, a soca band from Trinidad, will perform at Caribbean Pride. Its participation reminds St Clair of the political issues he's addressing. "It's the first time they've been convinced to play in the gay community. They look at it as breaking down a barrier. There's a lot of homophobia in Trinidad, a lot of gay-bashing. It's time to tear down this wall between the gay community and the straight community. We could learn a lot from each other." - Global Circuits: Transnational Sexualities and Trinidad (2001).

HIV and AIDS: The Global Inter-Connection: We are our own worst enemies: "During the early part of the last decade, when the world was just beginning to wake up to the threat of HIV, we in Trinidad were in the later stages of the oil boom years. As one politician proudly announced, money was not a problem for our nation, and neither was anything else, it seemed. When the first cases of AIDS were diagnosed here in 1983, all were among gay men, and everyone, including other gays, assumed that this was just an obscure disease that would not affect them... As long as a person does not flaunt their sexual orientation, society will usually ignore what they do not consider the norm, but the pressure to convert or conform, though often subtle, is unremitting. In Trinidad, even in the best of times, homosexuality is looked upon as an abomination. Anyone considered to be so inclined is condemned as a sinner of the highest order. Gay persons, when confronted, are often asked whether or not they believe in God. The hope is that the answer will be no, because that would supply sufficient reason for their homosexuality... Our society is so homophobic that openness and honesty about one's sexuality can lead to victimization on the job or being expelled from the home, in a society where most unmarried young people live with their parents. In some instances gays have even had their lives threatened by their own parents. People are so insecure about their sexual orientation that they will go to absurd lengths to prove that they are not what others think they are, regardless of whether it is true or not. They are constantly hiding behind a mask, trying to fit into a society that abhors homosexuality. They lie to themselves and believe that by working doubly hard, by overcompensating, they will be loved and respected just like any other members of our society. To avoid being ridiculed, some try whenever possible to associate with heterosexuals..." - Update on the transition from homosexual to heterosexual AIDS in Trinidad and Tobago (1989). - Transmission of HTLV-I and HIV among homosexual men in Trinidad (1987). - Update on the epidemiology of AIDS in Trinidad (1990).

Trinidad and Tobago: HIV/AIDS Situation: Documents to 2009. - Transfiguring Trinidad and Tobago: Queer cultural production, erotic subjectivity and the praxis of black queer anthropology  (2010).

Country Profile: Trinidad and Tobago (2008): “Multiple sexual partners” is cited as the most frequent risk factor for HIV infection. Young women are particularly affected by the epidemic, as female HIV positive cases from 15–29 years of age made up 65% of the total cases for the same age group. According to government reports, there are high HIV prevalence rates recorded from among the high-risk groups such as men who have sex with men, sex workers, injecting drug users and sexually transmitted infection clinic attendees... Current HIV services and programmes are not sensitive towards the most vulnerable populations. There are currently an insufficient number of programmes that target Trinidad and Tobago’s most vulnerable populations (men who have sex with men, commercial sex workers, drug users and sexually transmitted infection clinic attendees). - United Nations Theme Group on HIV/AIDS in Trinidad & Tobago (UNAIDS) (Word Download): “The Joint United Nations Response to HIV/AIDS”: While the epidemic was initially identified as a disease of homosexual men, HIV/AIDS in the country quickly became rooted in the heterosexual population... As a result or as a combined factor, some segments of the population are even more vulnerable to the infection. Condemning same sex partnering and denying bi-sexuality drive underground men who have sex with men. ‘Formal’, ‘informal’ or transactional sex work is not appropriately addressed because of the taboos that surround this activity. 

The Real Trinidad (1997): I told him I couldn’t remember the last time I had an open discussion about homosexuality, the real reasons as to why so many men feel emasculated enough to bash their wives’ heads in, the self censorship we practice everyday because we are a small society and someone may use something against us, the fact that we are a “matriarchal” society because so many fathers don’t give a damn, and about my belief that marriage is one of the most unnatural institutions even though I practice it... Here then is the real Trinidad. And it took an outsider and an accidental fall of a curtain rod to show it to me."

Trinidad and Tobago's Equal Opportunity Act (1999). - Le Equal Opportunities Act de Trinidad et Tobago (1999). - Song of Trinidad: "This relationship with lies applies to many men growing up gay in Trinidad and Tobago. I've little doubt that living the double life that most must do is what placed me at risk of HIV. My sexual outlets were found in the most unlikely of places, theatre circles, dodgy street vendors, transvestite prostitutes, cruising parks and public toilets. There is no infrastructure set up in my home country to promote discussion among gays, support youths who are coming out, support people with HIV or guide those infected to the limited services. The stigma constitutes unbelievable pressure, a double stigma combining that of being gay with that of Aids." - Coming out in Trinidad & Tobago (1998). - Global Circuits: Transnational Sexualities and Trinidad (2001). 

Concluding Observations of the Human Rights Committee, Trinidad and Tobago: 15/01/2001: "33. Thus, while the Equal Opportunity Act, 2000 represents a very bold and pioneering move in the region, it was not possible at this time to include discrimination in every shape and form. The State must tread carefully in what is as yet an undeveloped area of law in the Caribbean. Sexual Orientation: 34. The Act does not prohibit discrimination on the basis of a person's sexual preference or orientation. Again, the Government was guided by the Report of the Joint Select Committee. The Committee, despite its diverse membership and its consultation with experts and interest groups in the area, declared that it was unable to arrive at a definitive position on this issue. The Working Paper also recommended that as a starting point such a ground for discrimination should not be included. The Government has decided that in light of the groundbreaking nature of the Act, a conservative approach should be adopted. In any event, in as much as homosexuality and lesbianism have not been decriminalized in Trinidad and Tobago, it is not recommended that the legislation be extended to include discrimination on the grounds of sexual orientation at this time...."

The Worlds of Lawrence Scott (1999): " Trinidadian Lawrence Scott's journey of self-discovery has taken him back and forth across the Atlantic and inspired him to write searching novels of love and belonging, including his prize-winning Aelred's Sin with its story of gay love... Aelred's Sin, which had appeared several weeks earlier in London, is a powerful and at times unsettling look at homosexual love as experienced by a Benedictine novice, Aelred, whose passion for an older monk in an English monastery encompasses religious, as well as physical, rapture. A complex story of the "dangerous chastity" lived by religious orders, the novel explores one young man's multifaceted encounter with love, sacred and profane. At times it is explicit in its sexual scenes, but that isn't the whole story. It is also lyrical, moving and life-affirming. The novel has, to say the least, potential for controversy. And in Trinidad, where any mention of gay love is liable to cause a stir, controversy seemed inevitable..."- Aelred's Sin: A novel of compassion (Must scroll to locate article): "IT takes a brave -some would say, courageous- Trinidadian to write a novel whose central theme is homosexuality or 'homoeroticism' as the jacket blurb on Aelred's Sin describes it." (Related Information). - Lunchtime Seminar: Aelred's Sin. - Aelred's Sin: Amazon. - Aelred's Sin: Moving from present to past, from cruelty to sympathy, Aelred’s Sin is a powerful novel of erotic love, spiritual awakening and, above all reconciliation..

Homophobia and gay youth suicide: two interrelated destructive forces in our society. An open letter to the people of Trinidad and Tobago (2001). - The Plight of A Trinidadian Homosexual (2003). - Mavis John in concert... Long overdue (1998): ""They would make remarks about being a lesbian and give interpretations about why my marriage broke up. "I remember one member of my family asking me why I don't leave Trinidad. But after a while you realise you have to go through these experiences because they make you much stronger." John is now revelling in the joy of being a grandmother. She spends a lot of her time cuddling andpampering her three- month-old granddaughter, Rachel."

Gay Scene (1999): "Well..what's to say...with a population of 1.3 million it's obvious that there are quite a few gay people around. Unfortunately, successive T & T governments ...refusing to accept Queen Victoria's death have left homosexuality as a criminal offense on the law books. That being said there have not been any charges laid ( that I am aware of) for gay acts in decades..." 

Trinidad & Tobago Gay Scene (2005, Must Scroll): "Well..what's to say...with a population of 1.3 million it's obvious that there are quite a few gay people around. Unfortunately, successive T & T governments ...refusing to accept Queen Victoria's death have left homosexuality as a criminal offense on the law books. That being said there have not been any charges laid ( that I am aware of) for gay acts in decades. Naturally, the nasty legal business and the prevailing macho attitude mean that a lot of gay people never actually come out. I gather that many seem to find it normal to be married and have "something on the side". This may account for Trinidad's high ranking in the # of AIDS cases per capita. That being said, though, many Gay people are remarkably open ( more so than any other regional country) and there are at least three Gay bars/nightclubs in the Capital...not to mention a number of very bi places. None of the above applies to Carnival time in T & T when basically anything goes and sexual hangups get thrown out the window after much alcohol intake..."

The Contemporary Context of Carib “Revival” in Trinidad and Tobago (By Maximilian C. Forte, Journal of Caribbean Amerindian History and Anthropology 1(1): 18-33, 2000: "Creolization, Developmentalism and the State (PDF Download): "The gender correlates of Creole nationalism have also been eroded if not debunked. Creole nationalism’s inherent masculinism has been undermined by both the ascendance of women in the economy and professions and who refuse to be relegated to the role of “mothers of the nation,” valued only for making sons, in addition to the simultaneous economic displacement of many men from maledominated sectors affected by current retrenchment (i.e., port workers). Added to this is the increasing awareness, and furious controversy, of patterns of widespread bisexuality and homosexuality, with the recent publication of national estimates that up to 45% of adult male Trinidadians have had some homosexual experience. Moreover, the presentation in the media of gay issues and concerns is also a recent and highly debated development. The view that, “nationalism typically has sprung from masculinized memory, masculinized humiliation and masculinized hope,” is further developed by Cynthia Enloe (1989: 44, 54). A detailed treatment of the manner in which the ideology of male dominance, seen here as key to Creole nationalism, has been “subverted by the reality of male marginality” and “increasing female self-reliance,” appears in Olive Senior (1991: 181) See also Mohammed (1991: 35)..."

Living OUT Large: Warrem M (2002): "Warren believes he was very fortunate. He knew he was gay since he was sixteen years old. He came out at a time in Trinidad that he described as Coming-out Time. This period during the late 1970s to early 1980s was a time when it was easy to accept ones same sex orientation. It was everywhere he states, Things were in the papers, almost every job-site (food & beverage related) had a least one person who you suspected or knew was gay. The popular phrase If you like it do it was seen on tee shirts, sported by young healthy men at numerous private parties and certain public bars. It was possible to ignore the stigma towards same sex preference and same sex orientation as this silent movement confronted any personal fears replacing them with a ferocious character with a full understanding of self-pride and personal acceptance. It was a wonderful time to be young and gay. Warren said. Yet his life's journey was not always filled with the bliss that he experienced at that time... Warrens first sexual encounter was at ten.... When asked, Warren says that this experience did not affect his choice of same sex orientation. I dont think that this had any significance as to why I am gay. Even as a boy there were the signs. I sometimes think that perhaps Nache saw this and it prompted his interest to sexually assault me. He added I officially came-out when I was sixteen and moved to Trinidad where I discovered a whole gay world. He described this time in his life as wonderful and free. There were many parties and many good times shared with his gay friends. In this period I tried to be safe and use condoms, but feelings of trust overweighed any feelings of safety. After using condoms with the same person three or four times one felt that it was safe to not use them - Warren sincerely said. Fourteen years would pass before he would confront his greatest challenge..."

MSM Caribbean Horizon - Gay Life in T&T (2009, A Bried History): Trinidad and Tobago has historically always had an active gay community – active in the sense that it has always been there. Its early colonial history is not known, but it can be assumed that it followed the British Victorian pattern – a “gentleman’s vice” that was enjoyed but not spoken of. Of course, lesbianism was considered a curiosity, eccentricity or for male voyeuristic enjoyment. One of the earliest references in Trinidad’s history was the British Governor Sir Ralph Woodford who reputedly surrounded himself with “pretty young men”. Of course, there have always been rumours about the dallying of our colonial administrators, not to mention their wives, up until Independence... Attempts to decriminalize homosexuality by amending the Sexual Offences Act have failed consistently, and in 1999 the draft of the Equal Opportunity Act was challenged for its unconstitutionality by specifically excluding sexual orientation. It is still unclear whether the homosexual does have a constitutional right to equal opportunity as this has never been specifically challenged in court... Many same-gender loving persons have attempted to follow the expectations of their families by trying to suppress their feelings, marrying, having children and generally appearing to be “straight”. This has led to many living double lives, more often than not, great unhappiness, and even suicide especially in the vulnerable teen age years. There are however, several examples of same-sex partnerships, both among male and female homosexuals in Trinidad and Tobago which include balanced parenting and stable and happy families. Many outwardly open lesbians or gays, or those perceived to be lesbian or gay, have been taunted at school and in social settings. Expressions like ”bullerman”, “faggot”, “zammy”, “dyke”, “…. you rubbin’ donuts?” and of course the Jamaican “battiman”, are common. In the early days it was “Mako” and “Mako Mare”...

Puar, Jasbir K (2009). Chutney to Queer and Back: Trinidad 1995-1998. CRGS: Caribbean Review of Genser Studies, 3. PDF Download.  By this point I had had regular contact with folks in the “gay and lesbian community” as it was then hailed, and had amassed carefully sought knowledge of events, organizations, hangouts, and people over the past year—information that now could be instantly googled or binged. I decided to trace and document the emergence of a gay and lesbian movement in Trinidad, one linked to international, regional, diasporic, and sub-national formations and agendas. The only publication to result from this work, “Global Circuits” (2001) was informed by numerous field research trips spanning from December 1995 to October 1998, during which period I interviewed more than three dozen gay and lesbian activists, HIV/AIDS educators, epidemiologists, feminist organizers, and gay and lesbian business owners, performers, and artists. I met current and prior members of the Gay Enhancement Association of Trinidad and Tobago (GEATT), the Alliance for Prevention Trinidad and Tobago (APTT), the Caribbean Feminist Regional Association (CAFRA), the Caribbean Forum for Lesbians, All-sexuals, and Gays (C-FLAG), CAREC, and LAMBDA. I also cavorted and spoke with dozens more folks who hung out at the Pelican, Sidewalks, Peter Minshall's mas, Godfrey Sealy's house, and other more subterranean haunts, places that are now well-known and easily locatable as gay venues via the Internet, but at the time were only traceable through connections and word-ofmouth. Throughout the duration of my research, I constantly navigated polar opposite reactions to my project: those who considered homophobia to be rampantly active and debilitating in Trinidad and those who had never given their gay, lesbian, or bisexual desires a second thought and challenged the relevance of my project. Some insisted that the work could become an important document in the gay and lesbian struggles of the region; others worried about the backlash of visibility that discourses on homosexuality and the visibility of this work might engender, by now a familiar conundrum amongst LGBTQ organizers in the global south (see Joseph Massad 2007; Tara Atluri’s discussion of Massad, this volume); still others steadfastly claimed being gay was "no big deal" and regarded my interest as the product of Euro-American queer theory that attempted to correct its racial and geographical biases by discovering queer theories’ Others. I thus became wary about the framing, circulation, and publication of my work, realizing that I was indeed participating in positing Trinidad as a specific actor in the spectrum of global gay identities, mapping Trinidad’s “coming out,” if you will, of a modernist sort that I would otherwise theoretically argue against. Yet this “coming out” formed the very epistemological ground that I stood on and produced toward and against...

Puar, Jasbir K (2005).Global Circuits: Transnational Sexualities and Trinidad. PDF Download.These developments suggested to me several overlapping and diverging circuits of globalization that illuminated certain conundrums intrinsic to the relationships between globalization and sexuality. What were the connections between local “indigenous” and globalized sexual identities? Were they distinct and separable, and, if so, how? Questions about nomenclature and the categorization of sexual identities were crucial, as local terms such as buller—a reclaimed derogatory term for men, its nearest equivalent being “faggot”—and the phrase “she goes with a woman” were circulating in tandem with the terms gay, drag, and more recently, lesbian and transsexual. The circuits also highlighted that, at varied moments in different locations and circuits, different sexual namings were relevant and tenable, especially in terms of ethnic divisions between Africans and Indians in Trinidad.

From Gay Trinidad - Voices (1999): - Gay In A Straight World - "...It's being taught to hate yourself knowing that you cannot change, knowing you can never share that wonderful feeling of being in love with your family and most of your friends... I am 17 and I HAVE NO CHOICE BUT to LIVE MY "SO-CALLED LIFE" LIKE THIS. One day I WILL try to change this, I PROMISE." - My Lowest Point - "...Sometimes I have to ask myself how can life be so happy at one point in time and then plummet to the deepest depths of despair....  I needed to be able to distance myself from reality. I did to a point. I had that happy place in my mind that I would retreat to whenever everything was bad. However everytime I retreated into it, it grew smaller until there was nothing left... Its horrible being gay and your parents not knowing and not accepting. I hurt inside everytime my father makes a derogatory comment. And he does it alot." 

Resource Links: - The Gully: Gay Cuba Articles Listing. - Search GayToday.com Archives. - Artists Against AIDS. - Artists Against AIDS N/A. (Archive Link) - "MSM: No Political Agenda" is an NGO based in Trinidad & Tobago: MSMNPA WebSite. - Grey Gay Guide. - Gay Trinidad N/A (Archive Links). - The Gay Enhancement Advocates of Trinidad & Tobago N/A. (Archive Link) - asylumlaw.org: Sexual Minorities & HIV Status: Trinidad and Tobago Individual Documents since 2000.

Trinidad & Tobago's FreePride Foundation Project. - Gay Community of Trinidad & Tobago.

Global Gayz: Caribbean: Trinidad & Tobago. Trinidad & Tobago News Reports from 2004 to the Present. - ILGA: Trinidad & Tobago. - LGBT rights in Trinidad and Tobago. - Sodomy Laws: Trinidad & Tobago. - The International Encyclopedia of Sexuality: Trinidad & Tobago Not Included.

FRee Forum Online (Numerous Articles): No. 1 choice in the fight against AIDS, for men who have sex with men (MSM) and Gay communities in the Caribbean (To 2009). - FRee Forum Issues: #1: Pride 2002. - # 2: World AIDS Day, 2002. - #3: Carnival 2003. - #4: Pride 2003. - #5: World AIDS Day 2003. # 6: Carnival 2004.  - #7: Prde 2004.  #8: World AIDS Day 2004. - # 9: Pride 2005. - # 10: Pride 2005: Advocacy & Human Rights in the Caribbean. - # 11: World AIDS Day 2005: Keeping the Promise. - # 12: What's Your Position: Caribbean Men & HIV. - # 13: Pride 2006. - # 14: World AIDS Day 2006. - # 15: Health & Social issues for the Men who have Sex with Men Communities in the Caribbean. - # 16: Pride 2007. - # 17: World AIDS Day 2007. - # 18: Carnival 2008. - # 19: Pride 2008 - United by Pride = Bound by Equity.  - # 20: Treatment and Care 2008. - # 21: Prevention 2009: Steps Toward Personal Change.  - # 22: Human Rights & Advocacy: Chances to Change, 2009.

MSMGF News Articles & Documents Resources. By Region & Country:  - Caribbean: - Trinidad & Tobago

Blabbeando Blog: Latin American GLBTQ News / Commentaries: 2005 to Present.


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PUERTO RICO (Wikipedia): Gay Puerto Rico opens its arms (2010): Puerto Rico is one of the most gay-friendly Caribbean islands, with plenty of nightlife, Pride celebrations and community organizations, yet there are still barriers to full equality. Pride parades started around 1991, and are held in San Juan as well as Cabo Rojo and Boquerón. There’s a ban on same-sex marriage but attempts to solidify this in Puerto Rico’s Constitution have failed so far. A limited anti-discrimination bill, covering sexual orientation in some cases, but not gender identity, is under discussion. Not holding their breath for legal changes, Boricuas (Puerto Ricans) have fun in the bars and meeting places of their gaybourhoods in San Juan and beyond. Condado, Ocean Park and Santurce (best accessed by taxi for safety) are the most popular areas in the capital. Puerto Rico Gay Pride Parade 2009 Highlights (2009, YouTube). - Puerto Rico Gay Pride Parade, San Juan 6/2/08 (2008, YouTube). - Puerto Rico - Gay community gaining voice but still subjected to violence (2011).

Puerto Rico elaborará políticas públicas para homosexuales (2011, Translation): Varios libros sobre sexualidad fueron presentados ayer durante el Simposio Anual de la Asociación de Psicología de Puerto Rico.  (El Nuevo Día / Mariel Mejía Ortiz). “En una escala del 1 al 10, Puerto Rico se encuentra en el número 6, gracias a su apertura en torno a los temas relacionados con la homosexualidad”. Ese es el balance del análisis hecho por el doctor José Toro Alfonso, catedrático e investigador de la Universidad de Puerto Rico, tras ofrecer la conferencia magistral con la que dio inicio hoy en la Universidad del Turabo el Simposio Anual de la Asociación de Psicología de Puerto Rico (APPR). El evento se titula “Eliminando mitos: Perspectiva clínica, legal y de salud en la comunidad lesbiana, gay, bisexual y transexual (LGTB)”. “Es la primera vez que nos aventuramos a tocar el tema. Entendemos que la APPR y Puerto Rico están maduros para empezar a mirar seriamente el tema de la homosexualidad desde la ciencia y no desde el mito o desde el prejuicio”, afirmó Toro Alfonso... -  ¿Cuáles son las Demandas de los Homosexuales y  cómo las implementarán en Puerto Rico? (Translation): Entre las muchas batallas que se están librando en Puerto Rico en el orden moral, hay una de mucha importancia que ha venido ganando titulares en los medios masivos de comunicación. Nos referimos a las demandas de los grupos homosexuales y lesbianos. En esta batalla, el arma principal son las palabras e ideas que luchan por captar las mentes y los corazones de aquellos puertorriqueños que están ajenos a estas cosas y que todavía no han formado una opinión.

Primero Puerto Rico en discusión de la homosexualidad (2011, Translation): “Me parece muy importante el trabajo que están haciendo en Puerto Rico. La discusión del asunto de la comunidad LGBT (Lesbiana, Gay, Bisexual y Transexual) ha avanzado, sin embargo el que se de dentro de una institución universitaria es una postura muy revolucionante”, afirmó de entrada la psicóloga social Gloria Careaga Pérez, profesora de la Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México (UNAM). “Representa un avance sustancial para América Latina que no se está dando en otras universidades (latinoamericanas)”, aseguró la investigadora que ha laborado en Costa Rica, Brasil y que actualmente es secretaria general de la International Lesbian and Gay Association (ILGA). .

Homosexuality in Puerto Rico (2011, YouTube). - Gay Puerto Rican Teen Decapitated, Dismembered, and Burned (2009):The police agent that is handling this case said on a public televised statement that 'people who lead this type of lifestyle need to be aware that this will happen'. As If the boy murdered Jorge Steven Lopez was asking to get killed..." - Murder suspect thought Puerto Rico gay teen was a woman (2009). - Feds ‘closely monitoring’ anti-gay Puerto Rico killing (2009). - Thousands attend vigils for gay Puerto Rico teen (2009). - Suspect pleads guilty in brutal slaying of gay teen in Puerto Rico (2010): The man accused of the brutal murder of a gay teenager in Puerto Rico last November pleaded guilty on Wednesday and was sentenced to 99 years in prison..

Deadly assaults target gay and transgender people in Puerto Rico (2011): Since November 2009, 18 people have been murdered and others beaten across Puerto Rico. - Anti-Gay Violence Surges Drastically in Puerto Rico (2011). - Puerto Rico activists demand hate crime charges amid series of gay, transgender killings (2011). - Puerto Rico Gay Activists Demand Series Of Transgender Murders Investigated As Hate Crimes; Government And Police Apathetic Towards Near Pandemic Of Violence Against LGBT Community (2011). - Task Force: Anti-LGBT violence in Puerto Rico 'must stop now'’ (2011).

Puerto Rico bars discrimination toward gay couples (2008): Puerto Rico's outgoing governor said Monday he has prohibited government agencies from discriminating against same-sex couples, but the governor-elect indicated he will reverse the measure to avoid higher expenses for health care. The executive order by Gov. Anibal Acevedo Vila allows unmarried couples who work for the government to apply health benefits to their partners, whether they are gay or heterosexual. - Puerto Rico gov. allows referendum against gay marriage (2008). - Ricky Martin wants gay marriage in Puerto Rico (2010). - Puerto Rican Church Condemns Ricky Martin’s “Promotion of Homosexuality” (2011). - Parejas homosexuales en Puerto Rico (2011, Translation): Los cinco municipios con la mayor cantidad de parejas del mismo sexo son (en orden ascendiente) Cataño, Canóvanas, Guaynabo, Carolina y San Juan. San Juan es el municipio con más parejas en toda la Isla con un total de 1,327 parejas y una proporción de aproximadamente ocho parejas por cada mil hogares.

Puerto Rico Considering Same Sex Unions (2007). - Puerto Rico: Cuatro ponencias contra uniones Gay (2007, Translation). - Massive March in Puerto Rico Protests Plan to Permit Homosexual Civil Unions (2007). - Católicos de Puerto Rico reclaman al Parlamento la oposición a los matrimonios gay (2007, Translation). - Archbishop of San Juan, Puerto Rico backs "shared unions" (2007). - David Parker addresses 20,000 at massive march and rally in Puerto Rico, with blanket TV coverage, as citizens take to streets over proposed “civil unions” law! (2007) - Puerto Rico: Progress on Gay Rights, But not AIDS (2007, Alternate Link). - Homosexuales reconocen a Ricky Martin (2011, Translation): Organización GLAAD reconoce a Ricky Martin por su apoyo a comunidad gay.

United Church of Christ loses Puerto Rico Conference over GLBT issues (2006). - United Evangelical Church of Puerto Rico quits Church of Christ over gay issues: The United Church of Christ announced that an assembly of one of its regional units, the United Evangelical Church of Puerto Rico, voted by 75 percent to leave the denomination due to its liberal policies on homosexuality. The Rev. John Thomas, president of the 1.3 million-member United Church of Christ, said "theological differences" had worsened for years, especially "regarding the membership and ministry of gay, lesbian, bisexual, and transgender Christians." The end came when last year's UCC synod endorsed same-sex marriage. - Matrimonio entre personas del mismo sexo en Puerto Rico (Translation).

Unflappable and Unstoppable: Three Decades of Activism (PDF Download): In 1997, Colin Higgins 2001 Courage Award winner Olga Orraca-Parades and her partner Liz Gallardo-Martin knew they would be featured prominently in an article for Puerto Rico’s widely read El Nuevo Dia about National Coming Out Day, but they were a little nervous when they opened the Sunday edition to find a huge picture of themselves splashed across the front page. Overnight, they had literally become the poster children for the gay rights movement in Puerto Rico and potential targets of homophobic violence. While they did encounter some harassment and a few of their friends were afraid they’d been outed by association, there was an overwhelming show of support. - El dramaturgo Joselo Arroyo aporta su ‘Máscaras afuera’ al Festival de Teatro del Tercer Amor (2006, Translation).

Marcha de Orgullo Gay en Boquerón, Puerto Rico (2007, Translation). - Gay Puerto Rico Pride: 2002/2003. - Gay Puerto Rico: Explore the Pleasures of SanJuanBrothas in Gay Puerto Rico. - Alternative Lifestyles (2006): Puerto Rico is a diversified destination able to satisfy the interests of many visitors. Several guesthouses in the tourist zones of Isla Verde, Ocean Park and Condado cater specifically, though not necessarily exclusively, to gay and lesbian visitors.

Puerto Rico's Criminal Ban on Same-Gender Sex (1998). - ACLU Takes First-Ever Gay Rights Case to Puerto Rico Supreme Court, Citing Cultural Emphasis on Privacy (2000). - Puerto Rico's Sodomy Law Called a Danger to Citizens (2000). - Puerto Rico High Court to Review Sodomy Law (2000). - Puerto Rican Activists Demand Gay Freedom N/A. - Puerto Rico's Law 103: A Colonial Imposition: A gift in 1902 from California to Puerto Rico, the U.S.'s new Caribbean possession (2003).

Gay-rights movement struggles in Puerto Rico: Increasing activism is opposed by religious conservatives (2002). -  Puerto Rico Asked to Enforce Antigay Law (2002). - Puerto Rico's Sodomy Law Just "Tip of the Iceberg" And Reverend Margarita Sánchez de León vows to smash it (2003). - Gays Take To The Streets To Defend Diversity (2003). - Metrosexual Machismo All The Rage (2003). 

Court Overturns Puerto Rico Gay Rights Law (2003, Alternate link): "The Puerto Rico Supreme Court has overturned gay and lesbian provisions in domestic violence laws. - Latin Gays (1997): Violence against gays and lesbians is not unique to Puerto Rico - Gay Marriage Ban Proposed in Puerto Rico N/A. - Latino gays and lesbians N/A: "When I was growing up there was no insult that could start a fight faster than being called a pato. That is Puerto Rican slang for homosexual." - Puerto Rican activists urge letters of support in their fight against criminalization of same-sex consensual relationships (1997). - Gay-rights movement struggles in Puerto Rico (2002). - Puerto Rico: Defienden campaña de turismo gay (Translation)

Gay Community Flexes Muscle in Puerto Rico N/A. - Vieques and Queers:  Common Ground (2000): "Puerto Rican queers embody, in the flesh, the illegal status of their homeland in the world—like the people of Vieques". - Quenepon, San Juan: a gay friendly ezine.(To 2003) - 2000 Census information on Gay and Lesbian Couples, Puerto Rico (2002). - Gay-Rights Movement Growing In Puerto Rico (2002). - Nothing in the Caribbean compares to Puerto Rico (2000). - LLEGÓ Celebrates Puerto Rico Pride (2003). - LLEGÓ Applauds Supreme Court Ruling on Affirmative Action and Puerto Rican Senate Vote on Sodomy (2003). - Puerto Rico Episcopalians opt for reconciliation on controversial issues (2003). - Gay-rights movement struggles in Puerto Rico (2002): Increasing activism is opposed by religious conservatives.

Strengthening the Spirit: Rafael Otero-Rivera leads the fight against HIV in Puerto Rico (2000): "In the 20 years since he has come out, Rafael says he has witnessed many positive changes for Puerto Rico's gay community. "When I first came out, there were very few gay places that existed. Most people in Puerto Rico were very 'macho.' That has softened over the years with America's influence, though we continue to be somewhat 'macho.' In years past, there were no streets where we could walk and hold a partner's hand, but now there are some areas where you can, and it doesn't matter to other people. Before, when they called us names on  the street, we had to hide. Now we respond. We've realized that we have a space and a right to be who we are."

The community we don't dare to mention: An exploratory study regarding social vulnerability, high risk sex conduct, and HIV/AIDS in Puerto Rico's transgender community (2000). - Social support networks in HIV+ homosexual men in Puerto Rico (2004). - Domestic Violence Among Same Sex Partners in Puerto Rico: Implications for HIV Intervention (1999, PDF Download). - Domestic Violence in Puerto Rican Gay Male Couples (2004, PDF Download). - Evaluation of an HIV/AIDS prevention intervention targeting latino gay men and men who have sex with men in Puerto Rico (2002). - Masculinity Construction: Risk for health and vulnerability to HIV/AIDS, in a sample of men who have sex with men in Puerto Rico (2004). - Domestic violence and sexual coercion: HIV risk among Puerto Rican gay males (2002). 

Sexual identity formation and AIDS prevention: an exploratory study of non-gay-identified Puerto Rican MSM from working class neighborhoods (2006). - Description of a domestic violence measure for Puerto Rican gay males (2005). - Puerto Rican drug users experiences of physical and sexual abuse: comparisons based on sexual identities (2003, Full Text).

Suicide, adolescents and Puerto Rico (2000): Risk factors that correlate highly with the Puerto Rican experience include homosexuality, due to the hostility that the person may experience, depression, gender, prevalence of psychiatric disorders, lack of social integration and social skills, military experience, cultural and religious factors, alcoholism, substance abuse and unemployment/poverty. The literature reviewed indicates that the Puerto Rican adolescent male is in a high risk group for suicide and that the risk increases with age, sexual preference, dysfunction in the family and substance abuse. - Strengths and vulnerabilities of a sample of gay and bisexual male adolescents in Puerto Rico (2006, Alternate Link): Participants were 61 highly educated GB youths living in Puerto Rico. Levels of depression, perceived social support, alcohol and drug use, and sexual behavior were assessed. Results show that 45% of participants reported high levels of depression. However participants reported low levels of alcohol and drug consumption, no unprotected sexual behavior, and high satisfaction with social support...

Fankhanel, Edward H (2008). Paraphilias Among Gay Men in Puerto Rico. PhD. Dissertation, Faculty of The American Academy of Clinical Sexologists, Orlando, Florida. PDF Download. Download Page. In summary, DSM-IV-TR specific paraphilias are not reported by the majority of the gay men who participated of the study, being voyeurism the most reported (50.0%), followed by exhibitionism (39.0%), and pedophilia the least reported (4.40%).

Pride in Puerto Rico: In 1991 Puerto Ricans held the first-ever Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual, Transgender and Transexual Pride march. Eight years later, director Jorge Oliver documented the 1999 Pride March, now an annual event on the island. Together with footage from the festivities are interviews with prominent Puerto Rican activists - including the first openly gay Puerto Rican candidate for the House of Representatives - working for social change. As much a document of the struggle against discrimination and ignorance, Pride in Puerto Rico is a story of community and dignity. - Puerto Rico Travel: Puerto Rico has the most developed infrastructure for gay and lesbian tourism in the entire Caribbean.

Comité Para Los Asuntos de Lesbianas, Gays, Bisexuales y Transgénero (LGBT), Asociación de Psicología de Puerto Rico (2008). Estándares para el Trabajo e Intervención en Comunidades Lesbianas, Gay, Bisexuales y Transgéneros (LGBT). PDF Download. Translation.   Las siguientes organizaciones endosan y apoyan el contenido de esta publicación: Asociación de Psicología de Puerto Rico, Colegio de Trabajadores Sociales de Puerto Rico, Federación de Maestros de Puerto Rico, Centro Latinoamericano de Promoción de la Salud Sexual, Asociación Puertorriqueña de Educación, Consejería y Terapia Sexual, American Association of Sexuality Educators, Counselors, and Therapists, The American Board of Sexology, The American Academy of Clinical Sexologists.

Toro-Alfonso J (2008). Ciudadanía condicionada: Percepción de la comunidad gay sobre la tolerancia en Puerto Rico. Revista de Ciencias Sociales, 19: 42-69. PDF Download. PDF Download. English Abstract. Abstract: This work is part of a major research on social exclusion of gay, lesbians, bisexuals, and transgenders at governmental agencies in Puerto Rico. It included interviews with agency personnel and a survey to the LGBT community. This paper presents and discusses the results of a survey with 929 members of the LGBT community in Puerto Rico where we explore their perception on the levels of exclusion and intolerance in several agencies. Participants identified themselves as 52% males, 46% females, and 2% transsexuals, with high levels of education as; 35% reported having a bachelor is degree, 14% a master’s, and 4% doctorates. A 64% of the participants reported being verbally insulted sometime in their life in relation to their sexual orientation, 43% reported at least one experience of rejection and exclusion at governmental agencies, and 32% reported feeling afraid for their life and that this was related to their sexual orientation. The Police Department is the government agency most reported as intolerant to LGBT members. Implications for LGBT communities in Puerto Rico and their rights and the perception of a conditioned citizenship is discussed.

Toro-Alfonso J, Varas-Díaz, Nelson (2004). Los otros: prejuicio y distancia social hacia hombres gay y lesbianas en una muestra de estudiantes de nivel universitario. International Journal of Clinical and Health Psychology, 4(3): 537-551. PDF Download. Translation. Abstract: Gays and lesbians represent a section of our society which is rejected and confronts moral, religious, and in many cases legal sanctions. The objective of this exploratory study was to identify the levels of prejudice and social distance of a group of university students in Puerto Rico. The sample consisted of 548 students of both sex. Through a self-administered questionnaire we found that the sample composed of young university students, predominantly heterosexual, reported moderate levels of prejudice toward gay and lesbians. Male participants manifested high levels of prejudice and social distance in comparison to female participants. The participants that reported personally knowing someone gay or lesbian, reported lower levels of prejudice. Similarly, participants that reported active participation in religious activities manifested higher levels of prejudice. The results of this study confirm the evidence of significant levels of prejudice and social distance toward gay and lesbian among university students. This study also corroborates the findings of similar studies in other parts of the world. We present the implications for interventions of these findings for social tolerance and acceptance of diversity and describe possible intervention in the area of public policy.

Toro-Alfonso J, Nieves-Rosa L, Zuluaga LG (2007).  Por la Vía de la Exclusión: Homofobia y Ciudadanía en Puerto Rico: Proyecto Homofobia: Resumen Ejecutivo. PDF Download. Translation.

La Fountain-Stokes, Lawrence  (2008?). Translocas: Migración, homosexualidad y travestismo en el performance puertorriqueño reciente. E-Misferica, 8.1.  Full Text. Translation.  “Translocas” es una reflexión, desde una perspectiva queer de color, sobre el teatro y performance contemporáneo puertorriqueño translocal, específicamente sobre artistas y performeros gay que practican o han practicado el travestismo de hombre a mujer. Me enfoco en la obra de Freddie Mercado, Javier Cardona, Eduardo Alegría, Jorge Merced y Arthur Avilés como miembros de un grupo generacional cuyas vidas y producciones culturales están marcadas por la migración, el sexilio, el travestismo o drag y el performance. Propongo el término transloca como una intervención crítica vernácula útil para pensar la intersección de espacio, geografía y sexualidad en sus obras y experiencias de vida... En este ensayo integro tres preocupaciones distintas pero interrelacionadas: una visión de la cultura puertorriqueña constituida como un fenómeno translocal marcado por la migración (como fenómeno social) y la diáspora (como serie de comunidades entrelazadas); un análisis queer de color de la cultura puertorriqueña y nuyorican o diasporican, particularmente tal como se constituye en relación a clase, raza, género y sexualidad; y finalmente, el estudio de manifestaciones particulares del teatro y el performance puertorriqueño contemporáneo, específicamente de obras e individuos que participan del travestismo o drag de hombre a mujer. Discuto la obra de cinco artistas gay activos durante las décadas de 1990 y 2000 (Freddie Mercado, Javier Cardona, Eduardo Alegría, Jorge Merced y Arthur Avilés) como miembros de una generación cuyas vidas y producciones culturales están marcadas por migración, sexilio o exilio sexual y performance. Propongo el término transloca como una intervención crítica útil para pensar la intersección de espacio, geografía y sexualidad en sus obras y experiencias de vida...

Toro-Alfonso J (2009). La inversión del género como límite a la aceptación de empleados y empleadas de agencias de gobierno en Puerto Rico hacia la comunidad gay en Puerto Rico. Cuadernos de la Revista Cayey #3 / Serie Monográfica: 141-158. PDF Download. Translation. Excerpt: Las investigaciones sobre las homosexualidades en Puerto Rico: A partir del 1980, en Puerto Rico podemos identificarinvestigaciones relacionadas al tema de la homosexualidad y el lesbianismo, las cuales han continuado de forma consistente hasta el díade hoy, principalmente mediante investigaciones de tesis y disertaciones en las diferentes universidades del país. Desafortunadamente, la mayoría de estas investigaciones, aunque pertinentes y con una excelente aportación al tema, nunca se han publicado. Muchos de los trabajos de investigación que se han realizado en Puerto Rico se vinculan principalmente al tema de la epidemia del VIH, incluyendo el impacto y formas de prevención para poblaciones diversas y para la población homosexual masculina. Recientemente, observamos investigaciones académicas relacionadas al tema de la transgresión del género (Rodríguez- Madera & Toro-Alfonso, 2002), con la descripción de las conductas de riesgo para la infección del VIH y las situaciones de vulnerabilidad de una muestra de transgéneros en Puerto Rico. Además, Toro- Alfonso y Rodríguez Madera (2004) publicaron un trabajo sobre violencia doméstica en parejas del mismo sexo en el cual examinaron la prevalencia de agresión emocional, física y sexual en parejas de hombres homosexuales en Puerto Rico...

Bonomo, Hernán (2009). Transexualidad y transgénero en América Latina: condiciones de alto riesgo. PDF Download. Translation.  Abstract: Pocos problemas de discriminación, violencia y marginación son tan desconocidos para la mayoría de la gente como los padecidos por las personas transexuales y transgénero en casi todos los países de América Latina. Aún cuando sus organizaciones han conseguido recientemente importantes avances en legislación que reconoce los cambios de identidad, la caricaturización en la manera en que los medios de comunicación habitualmente reflejan a las personas y comunidades trans solamente contribuye a ocultar realidades de discriminación, violencia sistemática—y en varias ocasiones muerte—que miles de jóvenes padecen en la región debido a su identidad sexual y de género...

“Locas,” Respect, and Masculinity: Gender Conformity in Migrant Puerto Rican Gay Masculinities (2011): In this article, I explore how masculinity and gender nonconformity are viewed by 37 migrant Puerto Rican gay men who had been raised in Puerto Rico and migrated Stateside as adults. Most of these migrant men note the importance of masculinity in their development and interactions with others, particularly other men. They resist identification of themselves as effeminate and distance themselves from locas (effeminate gay men). They associate locas with overt homosexuality, disrespect, and marginality. I argue that migrant Puerto Rican gay masculinities are maintained within the precept of hegemonic masculinity through various social mechanisms, including a gendered construction of male homosexuality; the connection of social and interpersonal respect with masculinity; the socially allowable and pervasive ridicule and punishment of male femininity; and marginalization based on multiple social statuses. Through these interconnected social mechanisms, heteronormative perspectives on gender, gender binaries, and power are incorporated into homonormative migrant Puerto Rican gay masculinities. .

Tesis y disertaciones realizadas en Puerto Rico relacionadas al tema de la homosexualidad y el lesbianismo (Bibliography to 2007, Translation). - Asociación de Psicología de Puerto Rico
Comité sobre Minorías Sexuales - San Juan, Puerto Rico: Investigaciones relacionadas al tema de las homosexualidades
(Bibliography to 2007, Translation).

The culture of gender and sexuality in the Caribbean - 2003 - edited by Linden Lewis (Amazon). See:  "The Infamous Crime against Nature": Constructions of Heterosexuality and Lesbian Subversins in Puerto Rico - by Elizabeth Crespo-Kebler. See: Queering Cuba: Male Homosexuality in the Short Fiction of Manuel Granados - by Conrad James. Book Review. Book Review.

Transexuales y transgéneros exigen igual protección (2010, YouTube): En este video unas mujeres transexuales de Puerto Rico exigen derecho de protección a la identidad de género. - Movimiento Amplio de Mujeres de Puerto Rico (2011, Translation): “Las transexuales también son mujeres víctimas de la violencia machista” expresó el MAMPR.

Magnus Hirschfeld Archive for Sexology: Index Page: Puerto Rico: - Homoerotic, Homosexual, and Ambisexual Behaviors. - Gender Conflicted Persons. - HIV/AIDS.

Gay Puerto Rico (To 2002): Gay Puerto Rico es un blog privado para la diseminación de información y opinión relacionada con la homosexualidad en si y en todo lo referente a su manifestación en Puerto Rico.

GLBT Caribbean Travel (2011): Even though some of the islands of the Caribbean have a reputation for homophobia (Jamaica is a prime example), for most of the islands, once there are no public displays of affection (PDA), most people look the other way and are generally comfortable and friendly with gay and lesbian travelers... Condado Beach in San Juan has a very lively gay scene, particularly just outside the Atlantic Beach Hotel, which has a "friendly" and buzzing beach bar and cafe. Just off the north-east coast of Puerto Rico, you will find the tiny and gay and lesbian friendly island of Vieques. The small beach in the village of Esperanza is a favorite hangout for guests staying at the many gay friendly inns to be found on the island.

Top 5 Gay and Lesbian Friendly Destinations in the Caribbean: Gay travelers in Puerto Rico will find the Caribbean's only real gay nightlife scene: San Juan highlights include the Atlantic Beach Bar (with a weekly drag show) and clubs like Eros. On both the mainland and the island of Vieques you can find gay-friendly resorts, and gay travelers in Puerto Rico have the benefit of protection by U.S. antidiscrimination laws.

Resource Links: - The Gully. - Search GayToday.com Archives. - Puerto Rico Gay Blog.

OrgulloBoricua.net: Portal de la comunidad gay en Puerto Rico (Translation). - Gay organizations in Puerto Rico (To 1996).  - Gay Puerto Rico Websites. - GLBTQ: Puerto Rico and the Caribbean.

Global Gayz: Caribbean: Puerto Rico. Puerto Rico News Reports from 2003 to the Present. - ILGA: Puerto Rico- LGBT rights in Puerto Rico.- Sodomy Laws: Puerto Rico. - The International Encyclopedia of SexualityPuerto Rico.

FRee Forum Online (Numerous Articles): No. 1 choice in the fight against AIDS, for men who have sex with men (MSM) and Gay communities in the Caribbean (To 2009). - FRee Forum Issues: #1: Pride 2002. - # 2: World AIDS Day, 2002. - #3: Carnival 2003. - #4: Pride 2003. - #5: World AIDS Day 2003. # 6: Carnival 2004.  - #7: Prde 2004.  #8: World AIDS Day 2004. - # 9: Pride 2005. - # 10: Pride 2005: Advocacy & Human Rights in the Caribbean. - # 11: World AIDS Day 2005: Keeping the Promise. - # 12: What's Your Position: Caribbean Men & HIV. - # 13: Pride 2006. - # 14: World AIDS Day 2006. - # 15: Health & Social issues for the Men who have Sex with Men Communities in the Caribbean. - # 16: Pride 2007. - # 17: World AIDS Day 2007. - # 18: Carnival 2008. - # 19: Pride 2008 - United by Pride = Bound by Equity.  - # 20: Treatment and Care 2008. - # 21: Prevention 2009: Steps Toward Personal Change.  - # 22: Human Rights & Advocacy: Chances to Change, 2009.

MSMGF News Articles & Documents Resources. By Region & Country:  - Caribbean: - Puerto Rico

Blabbeando Blog: Latin American GLBTQ News / Commentaries: 2005 to Present.


To "The SEARCH Section" For The Best Search Engines & Information Directories, The Searchable Sites to Locate Papers & Abstracts... and The Sites - Some Searchable - Where "Free Papers" Are Available! 
 

HAITI (Wikipedia): - Will Faith-Based Agencies Help Haiti's Gay Community? (2010): Since the world community has descended on Haiti with relief aid in response to the January 12th earthquake, I am wondering how Haiti's lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer (LGBTQ) communities are being helped. As one of Haiti's most marginal groups, the question arises in response to how some American LGBTQ New Orleans residents were treated during the Hurricane Katrina relief effort in 2005. - Haiti earthquake crushes bisexual and gay support group (2010): Fourteen men participating in a support group meeting for HIV+ MSM (men who have sex with men) were killed when the earthquake hit Port Au Prince and the offices of SEROvie, an organization providing services to HIV+ LGBT people, collapsed. - Needs of LGBT Haitians Largely Ignored in Post-quake Recovery Efforts (2011, Alternate Link).

IGLHRC and partners meet to assess community needs in Haiti (2010): In the fall of 2009, I traveled to Haiti to get a better understanding of emerging LGBT communities, the impact of HIV on men who have sex with men (MSM), and how LGBT were responding to the HIV crisis. At the time, I met some talented, committed individuals, who were mainly working in the context of the HIV prevention, treatment and care sector, but were also steadily carving out a space for the promotion and protection of a broad set of human rights for LGBT people. It has only been three months since the devastating 7.0 magnitude earthquake of January 12, 2009, and I have returned to Haiti, along with Marcelo Ferreyra, IGLHRC’s Latin America and Caribbean coordinator, and researcher Samara Fox. This week we will be interviewing LGBT Haitians, relief workers, and human rights activists to learn more about how the earthquake and the recovery efforts are impacting LGBT lives. Our findings will help us understand the specific difficulties that LGBT people face in the wake of massive disasters and upheaval so we can make our partnerships as useful as possible when working with organizations such as SEROvie and its members in Haiti, and LGBT communities elsewhere in the wake of catastrophes.

LGBTA Haiti Solidarity fundraising campaign (2010): Maison Plein Coeur, Fréquence VIH and the Conseil québécois des gais et lesbiennes (CQGL), in collaboration with OXFAM-Québec invites you to the launch of our fundraising campaign for LGBTA Haiti Solidarity, to benefit SEROvie, the 18th of March 2010 as of 6pm at Sky Complex, 1474, Ste-Catherine Street West, 2nd Floor, Montreal... The funds raised throughout this campaign will alleviate the most urgent purchases for SEROvie, such as, tents, cots, sheets, pillows, clothes, hygiene products and food for some 130 people and their families who use the organisation’s services in Port-au-Prince and Jacmel. During the earthquake, several staff members were killed in the collapse of the offices of the organization...

De Rome et de l'homosexualité (2011, Translation): Si l'homosexualité reste un sujet tabou en Haïti, même dans le domaine littéraire, le jeune écrivain Leo De Rome veut à travers son dernier ouvrage « Je suis aux maux » donner du sens à nos perspectives, en posant les débats qui traversent actuellement la société haïtienne. L'auteur a voulu faire le premier pas, en mettant à nu cette pratique, qui de nos jours, se révèle de plus en plus monnaie courante chez les hommes et les femmes. Entretien... .La trame de ce roman est en effet une présentation claire et simple de la façon dont généralement nous percevons l'homosexualité. Dans les différents chapitres de ce livre, les lecteurs verront une suite de réactions à la fois positives et négatives face à cette situation. C'est aussi et surtout un roman dans lequel j'ai campé l'être homosexuel, avec tous ses ressentiments et ses faiblesses. Tous les questionnements que peuvent susciter cette mode de vie sont apparus à travers le journal "Le journal de Christian" : « Ai-je demandé d'avoir cette attirance malveillante, qui m'attire tous les maux du monde ? ... A ma plume je me lâche, je m'attarde, je me consacre pour calomnier les laides beautés humaines... ». En quelques mots le roman invite les lecteurs à prendre connaissance de la réalité des homosexuels...

Homosexualité/Pédophilie : Evans Lescouflair incriminé pour viols sur deux jeunes garçons (2010, Translation): Accusé d’homosexualité et d’agression sexuelle, Evans Lescouflair, actuel ministre haïtien de la Jeunesse, des Sports et de l’Action civique (MJSAC), est sous les feux de la rampe depuis au moins deux jours. Il aurait contraint deux jeunes garçons dont un mineur à satisfaire ses désirs sexuels. La révélation a été faite dans la presse ce mercredi par le sénateur Youri Latortue, offusqué à ce sujet... - Lescouflair rejette les accusations de viol homosexuel (2010, Translation). - Haïti Pédophilie : Le Ministre Evans Lescouflair, toujours sur le banc des accusés.(2011,Translation): Personne ne saura la vérité sur les accusations de viol et de pédophilie portées contre le Ministre Evans Lescouflair par M. Dor et d'attouchement sexuel sur son neveu de 16 ans. Le classement sans suite du dossier de l'acte d'accusation contre l'homme fort du ministère de la Jeunesse et des sports ne fait que renforcer le doute sur son innocence...

Openly gay marchers debut at Haiti AIDS rally (2008, Alternate Link): A dozen men in T-shirts declaring "I am gay" and "I am living with HIV/AIDS" marched with hundreds of other demonstrators through a Haitian city on Sunday in what organizers called the Caribbean nation's first openly gay march. The march, held a day ahead of World AIDS Day in the western city of St. Marc, called for better prevention and treatment in a country long plagued by the virus. - Première manifestation gay à Haïti (2008, Translation). - In Post-Earthquake Haiti, Activists Fight Violence Based on Gender and Sexuality (2010).

Gay Rights, Haiti (2007): If homosexuality is getting more and more acceptance in many countries in the world, in Haiti, the question is still controversial. The subject has been and continues to be a hot point in Haitian people’s conversations where, it is rare that a Haitian man openly declares his gay-oriented sexual preferences. Such hesitance can be explained and justified by many reasons as stated in the following items. - L’homosexualite menace t-il Haïti ? (2005, Translation): Malgre son infiltration dans notre societe, l’homosexualite ne la menace pas beaucoup. Le fait que la sexualite reste un sujet tabou, aide a combattre cette pratique. Beaucoup de jeunes haitiens s’adonnent a l’homosexualite, mais peu d’entre eux osent l’assumer. Un mariage entre homosexuels en Haïti, ce n’est pas pour bientot..

Gay Haiti 2003: Posted here are four stories about life in Haiti from different perspectives: (1) my story based on a visit to Haiti in February 2003, (2) a gay Haitian-American man's testimony, (3) a commentary about gays and voudou, and (4) an article about Haiti's economic conditions. - Telecentre des Jeunes: Homosexualite (Translation): L’homosexualite menace t-il Haïti? Malgre son infiltration dans notre societe, l’homosexualite ne la menace pas beaucoup. Le fait que la sexualite reste un sujet tabou, aide a combattre cette pratique. Beaucoup de jeunes haitiens s’adonnent a l’homosexualite, mais peu d’entre eux osent l’assumer. Un mariage entre homosexuels en Haïti, ce n’est pas pour bientot.

Les églises évangéliques haïtiennes et l'homosexualité (2006, Translation):  A l'émission « Mega Connection » ... la surprise a été grande pour les auditeurs d'écouter une jeune fille qui s'est présentée comme lesbienne et qui participait comme invitée. Aujourd'hui âgée de 17 ans, « Mlle. X » comme on tend à l'appeler a déclaré sans ambages avoir eu ses premières expériences sexuelles avec une femme il y a cinq ans et qu'elle aurait été introduite par une jeune dame... Quand le journaliste lui a demandé comment est-ce possible et si le pasteur n'a jamais prêché contre l'homosexualité féminine, « Mlle. X » répondit avec calme et naturel : « Je n'ai jamais entendu le pasteur prêcher contre de telles choses.» ... Conformément à la Bible, la parole divine, les missions évangéliques internationales (et nationales) condamnent unanimement l'homosexualité... - Société:La diaspora haitienne contre le mariage gay à New-york (2011).

Homosexuality in Vodou (1996): "In Vodou, homosexuals are not barred from any religious activity. They may participate in religious services, and even become initiates and clergy people. It is true that there is some stigma associated with homosexuality in Haiti, but it does not take the form of the virulent hatred evident in Jamaica, for example, where homosexual individuals may be the victims of mob killings... Because open homosexuals are rigorously excluded from Protestant congregations, and frowned upon in Catholic services, almost the only avenue for spiritual expression for homsexuals in Haiti is Vodou. There is, therefore, a higher percentage of homosexuals at Vodou ceremonies, and in the priesthood, than in the general population." - Homosexuality and Voodoo

Haiti gives voodoo religion status (2003): "A recent international development conference on combating the spread of AIDS included delegates from the emerging voodoo community, which has a more open and tolerant view of homosexuality than does the Haitian public at large. "Voodoo is the only environment in which Haitian gays feel accepted and free to talk about issues," said Laurence Magloire, who last year produced a documentary film on voodoo and its embrace of sexual outcasts. "We live in a country where homosexuality is taboo." Not everyone is so enthusiastic..." - Haitians Hail the 'President of Voodoo': By legitimizing the religion, Aristide has energized believers and his popular support.

Reaching Out To Bring Young Haitians In (2004): FHI Helps Two Organizations Work With Youth In High – Risk Settings (PDF Download): "With support from USAID and FHI, Dr. Boulos is overseeing a second behavioral surveillance survey of Haiti (the first was conducted in 2000) to assess the behaviors that put Haitians at risk for HIV. He explains, “Poverty is so extensive in Haiti that girls go into prostitution just to bring money home.” He noted that male prostitution - where, typically, poor, illiterate men sell sex to educated, middle class men - is also common..."

Haïti: Homosexualité masculine et VIH-SIDA en Haïti : le dernier rapport Panos-Caraïbes (2008, Translation): Le dossier de presse de Panos Caraïbes intitulé "Homosexualité masculine et VIH/SIDA" constitue un solide travail sur un sujet tabou : l'enjeu homosexuel et le VIH /SIDA. Les signataires de ce dossier, Fils-Lien Thélot, Jean-Claude Louis et Henry Bazile précisent dans quelles circonstances ce document a été rédigé : « Dans ce numéro spécial, Panos tente d'aborder la problématique des minorités sexuelles en particulier celle des hommes ayant des rapports sexuels avec des hommes(HSH) en Haïti et leur vulnérabilité face au ViH/SIDA. L'homosexualité dans ce pays demeure un sujet tabou...

Thélot F-L E, Louis J-C,  Bastien HB (2008). Homosexualité masculine et VIH/Sida en Haïti: Dossier de Presse de Panos Caraïbes. Port-au-Prince, Haiti: Panos Caraïbes, Bureau Central. PDF Download. Comme tout autre fait social, l’homosexualité connaît, en Haïti, une pluralité dans ses formes d’expression et s’affirme à travers différentes figures. On y retrouve tant l’homosexualité masculine que l’homosexualité féminine. Chacune de ces deux grandes figures de l’homosexualité (masculine et féminine) comporte des traits distincts, renvoie à des réalités objectives et subjectives particulières. Les deux ne jouissent pas du même degré de tolérance en Haïti. Il semblerait qu’en Haïti, en général, l’homosexualité féminine choque moins que l’homosexualité masculine. Cependant, dans les deux cas, on observe une certaine réprobation des pratiques homosexuelles par la population générale... A) Les homosexuels/les à orientation sexuelle exclusive... B) Les bisexuels/les... C) Les transsexuels/les... 1) Les homosexuels efféminés... 2) Les homosexuels pères de famille... 3) Les curieux de l’homosexualité... 4) Les professionnels du sexe... Les pédérastes du vodou... V.- Les hommes ayant des relations sexuelles avec d’autres hommes et le VIH/Sida en Haïti... SEROvie, (GRASADIS, de son ancien nom) qui est une organisation travaillant avec des minorités sexuelles et particulièrement avec des hommes ayant des relations sexuelles avec d’autres hommes en Haïti, compte un effectif d’environ 2 800 membres. Il est vrai que c’est la seule organisation que nous connaissons, en Haïti, qui s’est donnée pour mission de travailler spécifiquement avec les hommes ayant des relations sexuelles avec d’autres hommes, mais les services qu’elle offre ne couvrent qu’une faible partie du territoire national... Nous ne disposons malheureusement d’aucune information sur des organisations qui travailleraient spécifiquement avec les homosexuelles féminines (les lesbiennes) en Haïti...

Strongman, Roberto (2008). Transcorporeality in Vodou. Journal of Haitian Studies, 14(2): 4-29. PDF Download. Download Page.  While Fanon insists in Peau Noire, Masques Blancs that there is no homosexuality in the West Indies (Fanon 1995, 146), other French West Indian writers such as Depestre and Frankétienne present same sex desire as intrinsic to the region. Frankétienne’s Kreyòl novel Adjanoumelezo utilizes the voice of Gede - the jocular Vodou lwa of life, death, overflowing sexuality and bawdiness - to speak openly about the important role that queers play in Vodou: ... Similarly, Gede’s voice in Frankétienne’s Adjanoumelezo locates the source of sexual desire of men for men in the phallus of Dambala, the snake god. Paralleling his earlier beautification of "madevinez," Frankétienne explains the effeminacy of the "masisi" as divine in nature, coming about through male devotion to Lasirenn. Frankétienne writes: ... All these men use Kreyòl terms to name their lived experience: masisi, madivinez, en kachet. None use "gay," "lesbian," or "the closet." ...

Strongman, Roberto (2008). The Afro-Diasporic Body in Haitian Vodou and the Transcending of Gendered Cartesian Corporeality. KUNAPIPI, Journal of Postcolonial Writing & Culture, 30(2): 11-29.  PDF Download. Download Page.

Special Science Issue Examines HIV/AIDS in Latin America and the Caribbean (2006):  Haiti and the Dominican Republic, which share the island of Hispaniola, have 85 percent of the Caribbean's cases. At the end of last year, the Caribbean's HIV/AIDS prevalence rate of 1.6 percent was the second-highest in the world, after sub-Saharan Africa. Haiti has an adult prevalence rate of 3.8 percent, and the Dominican Republic 1.1 percent. Although the Dominican Republic's prevalence rate is less than one-third of Haiti's, surprisingly the Dominican Republic's HIV/AIDS programs are far inferior. "It's 1,000 times better in Haiti," says Keith Joseph, a physician at Columbia University who has provided HIV/AIDS care in both countries. Researchers estimate that 78 percent of infections in the Dominican Republic now occur through heterosexual sex, some of which is linked to a booming sex trade. Prevalence rates as high as 12 percent have been documented among sex workers. - Haiti: The Intersection of Race, Poverty and HIV (2005): "The number one mode of transmission for HIV in Haiti is reported as heterosexual contact," he explains. "In my own private practice, largely due to our culture, not many people would admit to being gay or to having sex with anyone of the same sex. Homosexuality is completely taboo in Haiti."

HIV/AIDS in Haiti: A Literature Review (2004, PDF Download, PDF Download): ... Men who have sex with men: Homosexuality is not, for the most part, socially accepted in Haiti. Men who have sex with me (MSM) are obliged to conceal their sexual orientation, a fact that promotes clandestine sexual encounters and limited condom use. Organizations currently working with MSMs in Haiti include FHI and the Groupe de Recherche et d’Action AntiSIDA et Antidiscrimination Sexuelle. AIDS and Accusation: Haiti and the Geography of Blame - 1993 - by Paul Farmer . - AIDS in Haiti: a bibliometric analysis (2000). - Being Gay and HIV-Positive in Haiti (Video) (2010, Alternate Link).

Perspectives sur le SIDA Entre la peur, l'ignorance et l'incrédulité en Haïti Quelles réponses dans la Caraïbe? (1999, Translation): En Haïti, les facteurs de propagation du SIDA ciblés par les spécialistes sont la régression de l'économie, la pauvreté, une promiscuité sexuelle très grave, " la monogamie en série ", le libertinage sexuel, l'homosexualité, le phénomène de la drogue. L'organisation Promoteurs Objectif Zéro SIDA note que la question de l'homosexualité n'est considérée à aucun moment dans le plan national stratégique de lutte contre le SIDA, " parce que c'est un sujet tabou ". Une étude en cours au sein de cette organisation signale l'existence de problèmes assez sérieux au niveau de l'homosexualité, dont la communauté traverse toutes les couches sociales : pauvre, moyenne et aisée (bourgeoisie)...

Of Men and Gods (des hommes et dieux, 2002): A frank look at a largely unexplored area, Of Men And Gods examines the daily existence of several Haitian men who are openly gay... Prevalent, yet still taboo, homosexuality and gay culture are allowed to flourish within the context of Haiti's Vodou religion. As "children of the gods," the men find an explanation for homosexuality as well as divine protection. They also find an outlet for theatrical expression through exhilarating performances in which they embody the gods. Meanwhile, the AIDS epidemic looms as a continual threat and adds a disquieting degree of nihilism to their relatively optimistic attitudes toward life and happiness in Port-au-Prince. - The spiritual rationalization of self: Haiti is the setting for Of Men and Gods, where homosexuality is taboo and organized religion competes/exists side by side with the spirits and practices of voodoo. Most of the gay men interviewed believe their homosexuality came to them through the god of love and fertility:  Erzuli Dantor.  They dress as they wish and endure the insults "from people dirtier than me," but, to a person, they have no shame because the spirits have made them "want to be women."

Cinema: Of men and gods (Des hommes et des dieux), by Anne Lescot and Laurence Magloire: This film, shot in Haiti is about homosexuals and transvestites in Voodoo. The encounter of these two worlds leads us into a very powerful, mystical and symbolic environment, inside which freedom of being, of incarnating the gods is expressed sometimes in the theatrics, sometimes with deep emotion. It explores the world of 6 young transvestites, living outside of Port-au-Prince. This journey takes us into their daily life, their daily needs and problems, as well as into their spiritual world: Voodoo. This one becomes center in their lives, since voodoo provides those young man as well as their families with an explanation justifying their sexuality... - L’homosexualité et l’esprit des Loas N/A: Le documentaire Des dieux et des hommes offre une vision juste de l’homosexualité en Haïti remise dans le contexte original du vaudou, un des fondements de la culture haïtienne, loin des clichés de la magie noire... - Des hommes et dieux (Translation). - Of Men and Gods (des hommes et dieux): Film Preview (YouTube). - Of Gods And Men (Des Hommes Et Des Dieux) (2010, Review).

Gay Artists Flourish in Haiti: On the Caribbean island of Haiti, proud declarations of homosexuality go against the cultural norm of keeping intimate matters private. In spite of this fact, homosexual artists like the painter Prince Jean Jo, and Jean Baptiste Jean Joseph, a genius of the voodoo flag medium who lives in Croix-des-Bouquets, Haiti, are creating names for themselves and legacies of art that will outlive them in museums and private homes...

Reaching out to our LGBT and LGBT-friendly community:   The Haitian Gays and Lesbians Alliance (HGLA) is a community base organization that provides counseling and other support to the Haitian LGBTQ community (Lesbians’ Gays, Bisexuals, Transgender and those Questionings). We are an integral part of the community supporting Haitian music, dance, art, businesses, and professional services. - The Haitian Gays and Lesbians Alliance (to 2007): We are happy to announce the beginning of a new branch under HGLA's Umbrella in Haiti which started by popular demand.

Resource Links: - The Gully. - Search GayToday.com Archives. - HGLA: Haitian Gays & Lesbians Alliance (Facebook). - Gay in Haiti (2008. Forum).

Global Gayz: Caribbean: Haiti. Haiti News Reports from 2002 to the Present. Gay Haiti. The Taxis in Haiti's Port au Prince. - ILGA: Haiti- LGBT rights in Haiti. - Sodomy Laws. - The International Encyclopedia of Sexuality:  Haiti Not included.

FRee Forum Online (Numerous Articles): No. 1 choice in the fight against AIDS, for men who have sex with men (MSM) and Gay communities in the Caribbean (To 2009). - FRee Forum Issues: #1: Pride 2002. - # 2: World AIDS Day, 2002. - #3: Carnival 2003. - #4: Pride 2003. - #5: World AIDS Day 2003. # 6: Carnival 2004.  - #7: Prde 2004.  #8: World AIDS Day 2004. - # 9: Pride 2005. - # 10: Pride 2005: Advocacy & Human Rights in the Caribbean. - # 11: World AIDS Day 2005: Keeping the Promise. - # 12: What's Your Position: Caribbean Men & HIV. - # 13: Pride 2006. - # 14: World AIDS Day 2006. - # 15: Health & Social issues for the Men who have Sex with Men Communities in the Caribbean. - # 16: Pride 2007. - # 17: World AIDS Day 2007. - # 18: Carnival 2008. - # 19: Pride 2008 - United by Pride = Bound by Equity.  - # 20: Treatment and Care 2008. - # 21: Prevention 2009: Steps Toward Personal Change.  - # 22: Human Rights & Advocacy: Chances to Change, 2009.

MSMGF News Articles & Documents Resources. By Region & Country:  - Caribbean: - Haiti

Blabbeando Blog: Latin American GLBTQ News / Commentaries: 2005 to Present.

 

MARTINIQUE (Wikipedia): - Faire changer les mentalités face à l'homosexualité (2010, Translation): Cette journée est l'occasion de nous pencher sur l'homosexualité en Martinique. Les gays et lesbiennes vivent-ils pleinement leur sexualité ? Les agressions homophobes sont-elles nombreuses ? Eléments de réponse. -  Violence homophobe : le sang coule de nouveau en Martinique (2010, Translation): Vers 23h30 heure locale, deux jeunes gens d’environ 16 ou 17 ans l’ont interpellé en lui demandant une cigarette sur un ton comminatoire, puis l’un d’entre eux l’a traité de « sacré makoumé » (« sale pédé ») avant de lui porter trois coups de « cutter » sous l’omoplate gauche, au bras et à l’avant-bras. Secouru par les pompiers, le militant a été transporté au CHU de la Maynard et s’est vu poser, vers 3 heures du matin, 21 points de suture. Le lendemain samedi 23 décembre, An Nou Allé l’aidait à porter plainte à l’hôtel de police de Fort-de-France. Pareil soutien n’était pas superflu, pour qui se souvient du refus du même hôtel de police d’enregistrer la plainte de deux victimes d’agressions homophobes, le 27 mai 2005 (voir nos lettres recommandées du 6 juin 2005 au procureur de la République et au directeur de la police nationale de Fort-de-France, restées sans réponse). - Deux homosexuels agressés en Martinique (2009, Translation): Vendredi 3 avril au Robert (commune de Martinique), un Martiniquais d’une trentaine d’années et son compagnon européen, appelons-les Richard et Jean, ont été agressés et menacés de mort par un voisin et ses deux fils, qui ont fait irruption dans la maison de Richard, armés de trois « coutelas » de 75 cm de long. « Sales makoumès (pédés), vous ne méritez pas de vivre, on va vous découper... » : tels sont (parmi d’autres) les propos et menaces qu’ils ont dû entendre, les armes sous le nez.. - Vivre son homosexualité aux Antilles (2011, Translation).

Haïti, Martinique, Guadeloupe... A-t-on le droit d'être homosexuel/le aux Antilles ?: Samedi 17 mai, Journée mondiale de lutte contre l'homophobie, Tjenbé Rèd vous invite à une conférence-débat organisée à l'initiative d'Amnesty International (2008, Translation). - Martinique Anti-Gay Blogger Charged with Incitement to Murder (2007). - Martinique man charged with incitement of murder for allegedly writing anti-gay blog (2008, Alternate Link). - L'UMP Martinique et le mariage homosexuel (2007. Video, Translarion)

Martinique: Homophobia and Segolene Royal's Socialist Party (2007). - Homophobie au PS antillais : des organisations LGBT interpellent Ségolène Royal (2007, Translation). - Lettre ouverte aux socialistes sur la campagne homophobe menée par le Parti socialiste en Martinique (2007, Translation). - La Martinique, île homophobe? (2006, Translation) - Martinique : un couple homosexuel agressé sur une plage (2005, Translation). - Un prêtre victime d'une agression homophobe (2005, Translation). - L'honneur des makoumès (1999, Translation): "Alors que l’homosexualité reste largement interdite dans les Caraïbes, en Martinique et en Guadeloupe, les mentalités commencent à changer. Les traditions familiales et le machisme créole cultivent l’image des «makoumès», mais les jeunes gays antillais n’acceptent plus l’insulte. à Fort-de-France, à Pointe-à-Pitre ou à Paris, ils relèvent la tête…" - Homophobie en Martinique: La douleur des Makoumès.

In the Caribbean, anti-gay bigotry thrives (2007, Must Scroll): Meanwhile, on the tiny islands of Guadeloupe and Martinique, French territories in the eastern Caribbean, rampant homophobia goes unchecked, offering unfortunate proof again that, although many people around the world have come to appreciate that racism, bigotry and intolerance are pernicious social diseases, it's still okay - in fact, in many places, it's still encouraged - to vilify, disparage, discriminate against and physically harm gay men and lesbians, or individuals whom homophobic bigots only suspect may be gay or lesbian. So it is that the Guadeloupean pop singer Admiral T and his musical confrère from Martinique, Lieutenant, have made big names for themselves regionally by peddling vicious, anti-gay "entertainment." ... Admiral T is best known for his song from a few years ago titled "Makoumé" (which means "homosexual" in the local creole). In it, "he clearly announces his hatred against homosexuals, inviting his listeners to 'burn them like cigarette butts.'" In the song, Admiral T declares that he has "come to burn the fags who hang out near city hall," and that the targets of his bigotry are "going to suffer, suffer; they're going to be gassed, gassed." He advises his listeners: "Instead of aiming your gun at your brother, aim it at them..."

In the Caribbean, anti-gay bigotry thrives (2007): Meanwhile, on the tiny islands of Guadeloupe and Martinique, French territories in the eastern Caribbean, rampant homophobia goes unchecked... So it is that the Guadeloupean pop singer Admiral T and his musical confrère from Martinique, Lieutenant, have made big names for themselves regionally by peddling vicious, anti-gay "entertainment." In fact, last year, in an event funded in part by the government of Paris, Admiral T was awarded a Music Césaire (something like a Grammy Award in the U.S.) as a noteworthy performer in the new-discoveries category. Admiral T is best known for his song from a few years ago titled "Makoumé" (which means "homosexual" in the local creole). In it, "he clearly announces his hatred against homosexuals, inviting his listeners to 'burn them like cigarette butts.'" In the song, Admiral T declares that he has "come to burn the fags who hang out near city hall," and that the targets of his bigotry are "going to suffer, suffer; they're going to be gassed, gassed." He advises his listeners: "Instead of aiming your gun at your brother, aim it at them..."...

Between a Rock and a Hard Place: The Power and Powerlessness of Transnational Narratives among Gay Martinican Men: (2000, Must Scroll) In Martinique, self-identified gay men often tell each other stories about gay communities in other societies. France and Martinique are central characters in these stories but their presence is largely negative: life in the former is criticized for its economic or racial hardships and life in the latter is criticized for homophobia, hypocrisy, and smallness, creating a frustrating catch-22 for these men. However, in these narratives Quebec often emerges as an ideal destination of racial and sexual freedom...

Murray, David (1996). Homosexuality, Society and the State: An Ethnography of Sublime Resistance in Martinique. Identities: Global Studies in Culture and Power 2(3): 249-272. - Defiance or Defilement? Undressing Cross-dressing in Martinique's Carnival (1998).

Laws of Desire? Race, Sexuality, and Power in Male Martinican Sexual Narratives: (JSTOR Reference) In Martinique, both homosexual and heterosexual narratives of sexual desire reveal the centrality of an orthodox masculinity as a hegemonic force in public articulations about social relations and identity.... Paper Excerpts: "In Martinique, masculinity is rigidly defined and occupies a central and authoritative place that must be continually buttressed. Telling stories about women as sexual objects of desire is both a demonstration of appropriate masculine behavior and a legitimation of respectability and power Excoriations of homosexuality serve similar purposes: to accuse a man publicly of being macoume (a Creole word evoking an effeminate, passive homosexual identity) is one of the most severe insults to heterosexual masculinity, often claimed as a warrant for a violent verbal or physical retort. Homosexual narratives of desire, articulated mostly among fellow homosexuals in private spheres, subvert such heterosexual narratives by turning men into objects of desire; nevertheless, homosexual narratives remain a male domain in that the articulation of sexual desire and objectification continue to be means through which homosexual men can socially validate an acceptable masculine homosexuality...  Most self-identified homosexuals reject the macoume [being like a woman] label entirely and follow the conventional linguistic and kinesic codes that affirm male heterosexuality in public domains. The hegemonic power of heterosexual masculinity in Martinican public life means that homosexual desire can be expressed only in private spaces, such as a man's apartment (assuming the man does not live with his family), or in private codes, such as linguistically coded speech with fellow homosexuals in public domains...

Carnet de voyage : Le sida en Martinique (2005, Translation): Par ailleurs, la situation de la communauté homosexuelle locale est une gigantesque nébuleuse. Retrouver son porte-clé dans la pénombre d’une backroom est moins difficile que de vouloir trouver des informations sur les pédés créoles martiniquais.

Les connaissances, attitudes, croyances et comportements face au VIH/sida aux Antilles [Martinique / Guadekoup] et en Guyane en 2004 (2006): La proportion de personnes ayant déjà eu au moins un partenaire du même sexe est comparable quels que soient les espaces géographiques: Chez les hommes comme chez les femmes, environ 2 à 3 % des personnes interrogées ont indiqué avoir déjà eu, au cours de leur vie, au cours des cinq années ou des douze mois précédant l'enquête, des rapports sexuels avec des partenaires du même sexe qu'elles. Il n'existe pas de différence notable selon les espaces géographiques, contrairement à ce qui avait été observé dans l'enquête ACSAG en 1992 où on notait, dans les DFA, une proportion nettement plus faible qu]en métropole de personnes déclarant avoir déjà eu des rapports homosexuels au cours de leur vie, des cinq ans ou des douze mois précédant l'enquête. L'hypothèse d'une sousd éclaration avait alors été avancée du fait, dans les DFA (notamment aux Antilles), d'une forte stigmatisation à l'égard des personnes ayant des pratiques homosexuelles. En effet, aux Antilles, seulement 6 % des hommes et 11 % des femmes jugeaient « tout à fait » ou « plutôt » acceptable un rapport sexuel entre deux hommes et respectivement 14 % et 11 % un rapport sexuel entre deux femmes. Les résultats observés dans l'enquête KABP 2004 pourraient donc indiquer une meilleure acceptation des pratiques homosexuelles, favorisant une parole plus ouverte à ce sujet. - L'homosexualité mieux acceptée quuparavant mais encore très
stigmatisée, surtout par les hommes
: Bien que les intitulés des questions ne soient pas identiques entre les deux enquêtes, les données recueillies en 2004 permettent en effet de noter une meilleure « acceptation » de l'homosexualité qu'il y a douze ans : 56 % des hommes et 65 % des femmes des DFA indiquent désormais être « tout à fait d'accord » avec l;affirmation selon laquelle « les homosexuels sont
des gens comme les autres ». Pour autant, il reste 26 % des hommes et 16 % des femmes à indiquer n'être « pas du tout d'accord » avec une telle affirmation (contre 8 % et 5 % en métropole). Ce sont les personnes les moins diplômées qui sont les plus nombreuses à déclarer n'être « pas du tout d'accord » avec cette affirmation. Par exemple, en Guyane, 30 % des individus sans diplôme ayant arrêté leur cursus scolaire avant l'âge de 16 ans contre 8 % de ceux ayant un niveau d'études supérieures. On note donc le maintien d'une forte stigmatisation des habitants des DFA à l'égard des personnes homosexuelles...

VIH/sida en Martinique: La maladie de l'autre (2007, Translation): En Martinique (comme souvent ailleurs), le sida se trouve associé à des catégories à risque, des « autres » auxquels on attribue la responsabilité de l'épidémie: le métropolitain ou le Haïtien, l'homosexuel, la prostituée et la personne de mauvaise vie... Les puissants tabous qui entourent le sexe, dans une société fortement marquée par les interdits religieux, constituent également un frein à la prévention. « On parle facilement du sexe mais de façon grivoise et il est perçu comme quelque chose de sale, explique Fred Cronard. Il n'y a aucun dialogue entre parents et enfants sur le sujet. Avant de parler du sida, il paraît essentiel de parler de sexualité... « Nous voyons régulièrement arriver aux urgences des personnes dépistées très tardivement et malades depuis longtemps », déplore le Dr André Cabié, qui se dit par ailleurs particulièrement frappé par la situation des homosexuels et des bisexuels, qui représentent 25 % des patients suivis (6): « L'homophobie, très forte en Martinique et vécue au quotidien par les homosexuels, entraîne un repli sur soi et donc une exclusion de la prévention... - HIV-1 subtype distribution in Martinique, Caribbean (1997).

Agard-Jones, Vanessa (2009). Le Jeu de Qui?1 Sexual Politics at Play in the French Caribbean. CRGS: Caribbean Review of Gender Studies, 3. PDF Download. Abstract: By virtue of their non-independent political status, Martinique and Guadeloupe (France's Antilles) operate under a legal regime unique to the Caribbean vis à vis sexual rights. While in certain independent countries in the region homosexuality is criminalized and “homosexual acts” are punishable by law, France’s legal code both affords protections and extends certain rights, such as access to the PACS (the pacte civil de solidarité is a form of civil union available to both same sex and heterosexual couples in France since 1999), to Martinican and Guadeloupean citizens. This paper seeks to understand the modes of representation that frame lesbian and gay Antilleans as subjects of particular (European) rights and victims of certain (Caribbean) violences. I document the loci of power that emerge as these discourses develop in a circuit between the Caribbean and the metropole, paying particular attention to the questions of legitimacy and authenticity mobilized in these fields. I argue that, despite the best intentions of (mostly) metropolitan-based advocacy groups, these discourses support the mapping of a developmental teleology on the Antilles, labeling them less “modern” than their metropolitan counterparts. I question how this framing dovetails with French nationalism, particularly as it relates to the country’s self-perception as an originator and defender of human rights. Because these discourses sometimes occlude the complicated, everyday experiences of queer Antilleans (both at “home” and in diaspora), I integrate into my analysis conversations with various interlocutors in both the Antilles and in Paris. By examining the politics of sexuality in the French Caribbean, this paper is a simultaneous consideration of teleologies of development and the limits of liberal rights paradigms, as well as a critique of the politics of representation that impact queer lives in the Antilles.

Appel à témoin: Pour réaliser un sujet sur l'homosexualité en Martinique, France-Antilles cherche des témoignages (2009, Translation): L'homosexualité est encore un sujet tabou aux Antilles. Si vous souhaitez l'évoquer (que vous soyez vous-même homosexuel ou que l'homosexualité d'un de vos proches vous pose problème par exemple), vous pouvez contacter notre rédaction en envoyant un mail à b.melinda@hotmail.fr. Evidemment, si vous le souhaitez, votre anonymat sera garanti... .Les commentaires: La réaction de Vaillant montre que le problème n'est donc pas l'homosexualité qui est une orientation sexuelle tout à fait naturelle, même si elle n'est pas majoritaire. Le problème est l'homophobie, qui elle est un délit, et réprimé en tant que tel par le Code Pénal. Ce n'est donc pas des homosexuels qu'il faut discourir, mais sur les homophobes, et donc sur les causes de l'homophobie, ou des homophobies : celle de la famille, celle des groupes religieux, celle de l'Etat...sans oublier l'homophobie virulente des homosexuel(les) locaux, qui vivent se se mentant et en mentant aux autres, 24h/24. Alain Oncins. Vice Pdt. Assoc. An Nou Alé...

GLBT Caribbean Travel (2011): Even though some of the islands of the Caribbean have a reputation for homophobia (Jamaica is a prime example), for most of the islands, once there are no public displays of affection (PDA), most people look the other way and are generally comfortable and friendly with gay and lesbian travelers... Generally speaking, when traveling in the Caribbean, once gay and lesbian travelers remember the PDA rule and all should be well!. The French, Dutch, and US islands welcome gay travelers with open arms and actively promote themselves as "gay friendly"....

Resource Links: - The Gully. - Search GayToday.com Archives. - AGLM : Ados Gays lesbiennes de Martinique (Forum).

Global Gayz: Caribbean: Martinique. - ILGA: Martinique- LGBT rights in Martinique. - Sodomy Laws. - The International Encyclopedia of Sexuality:  Martinique Not included.

MSMGF News Articles & Documents Resources. By Region & Country:  - Caribbean: - French Caribbean

Blabbeando Blog: Latin American GLBTQ News / Commentaries: 2005 to Present.

AN NOU ALLÉ ! CGL Antilles-Guyane & Outre-Mer | Association des NoirEs LGBT & de leurs amiEs en France: Communications de l'année 2007. - Le forum de An Nou Allé! - An Nou Allé ! CGL Antilles & Guyane Association des NoirEs LGBT en France: AN NOU ALLÉ ! a pour vocation générale d’être porte-parole des MartiniquaiSEs lesbiennes, gais, bi ou trans et de leurs amiEs en Martinique, en France et dans le monde.- Interview d'An Nou Allé au magazine lyonnais Hétéroclite (2007, Translation): Peut-on parler d'une homophobie spécifiquement antillaise ? On peut effectivement parler d'une «homophobie spécifiquement antillaise», dans la mesure où plusieurs facteurs spécifiques aux Antilles déterminent la perception globalement négative de l'homosexualité dans ces îles. Cependant, cette «spécificité» de l'homophobie antillaise ne doit pas justifier une «spécificité» de la tolérance de cette homophobie ! Cela va sans dire apparemment, mais c'est pourtant bel et bien l'argument qu'avance à demi-mot le Parti socialiste quand il refuse de sanctionner Marlène Lanoix, Raymond Occolier et Jules Otto, trois de ses membres éminents en Martinique et en Guadeloupe qui ont récemment, à des degrés divers, tenu des propos homophobes.

Louis-Georges Tin, président d’An Nou Allé (2008, Translation). - Louis-Georges Tin, noir, homosexuel, et …féministe (2008, Translation). - Quel courage politique par rapport à l'homosexualité ? (2008, Translation, Video): Rencontré dans le cadre de la série "Parcours caribéens" de www.gensdelacaraibe.org, Louis-Georges Tin, originaire de la Martinique, s'est engagé pour trois causes liées aux discriminations : les femmes, les homosexuels, les noirs.

Blabbeando Blog: Latin American GLBTQ News / Commentaries: 2005 to Present.


To "The SEARCH Section" For The Best Search Engines & Information Directories, The Searchable Sites to Locate Papers & Abstracts... and The Sites - Some Searchable - Where "Free Papers" Are Available!

 

GUADELOUPE (Wikipedia): - Le mariage homosexuel refait irruption dans le débat avant la présidentielle (2011, Translation). - Mariage homosexuel : En Guadeloupe, l’égalité doit encore convaincre (2011, Translation). - Les Antillais et l’homosexualité : l’appel à la tolérance des « Konxs ». Interview de Julien Dalle, réalisateur de ce film guadeloupéen (2008, Translation). - La question du mariage homosexuel fait débat (2007). - Présidentielle en Guadeloupe : le mariage homosexuel au coeur des préoccupations locales (2007, Translation): la position des candidats à la présidentielle 2007 sur le mariage homosexuel constitue un élement de sélection important, si ce n'est fondamental, pour les électeurs guadeloupéens. L'homosexualité reste, en effet, très mal perçue localement, comme du reste dans l'ensemble de la région. - Makoumè !: Discriminer pour mieux protéger ou protéger pour mieux discriminer ?... (2011, Translation)

Un dirigeant du Parti socialiste accusé d’homophobie (2007, Translation): Les associations de défense des homosexuels partent de nouveau en guerre contre Raymond Occolier. Le conseiller régional de Martinique, délégué national du Parti socialiste et maire du Vauclin (Sud), se prononce très clairement contre le mariage homosexuel. Une conviction qu’il place sur le terrain religieux. “Je suis un élu chrétien et par définition, je suis contre le mariage homosexuel.” - Guadeloupe: des affiches homophobes anti-Ségolène Royal (2007, Translation).

In the Caribbean, anti-gay bigotry thrives (2007): Meanwhile, on the tiny islands of Guadeloupe and Martinique, French territories in the eastern Caribbean, rampant homophobia goes unchecked... So it is that the Guadeloupean pop singer Admiral T and his musical confrère from Martinique, Lieutenant, have made big names for themselves regionally by peddling vicious, anti-gay "entertainment." In fact, last year, in an event funded in part by the government of Paris, Admiral T was awarded a Music Césaire (something like a Grammy Award in the U.S.) as a noteworthy performer in the new-discoveries category. Admiral T is best known for his song from a few years ago titled "Makoumé" (which means "homosexual" in the local creole). In it, "he clearly announces his hatred against homosexuals, inviting his listeners to 'burn them like cigarette butts.'" In the song, Admiral T declares that he has "come to burn the fags who hang out near city hall," and that the targets of his bigotry are "going to suffer, suffer; they're going to be gassed, gassed." He advises his listeners: "Instead of aiming your gun at your brother, aim it at them..."...

In the Caribbean, anti-gay bigotry thrives: Meanwhile, on the tiny islands of Guadeloupe and Martinique, French territories in the eastern Caribbean, rampant homophobia goes unchecked, offering unfortunate proof again that, although many people around the world have come to appreciate that racism, bigotry and intolerance are pernicious social diseases, it's still okay - in fact, in many places, it's still encouraged - to vilify, disparage, discriminate against and physically harm gay men and lesbians, or individuals whom homophobic bigots only suspect may be gay or lesbian. So it is that the Guadeloupean pop singer Admiral T and his musical confrère from Martinique, Lieutenant, have made big names for themselves regionally by peddling vicious, anti-gay "entertainment." ... Admiral T is best known for his song from a few years ago titled "Makoumé" (which means "homosexual" in the local creole). In it, "he clearly announces his hatred against homosexuals, inviting his listeners to 'burn them like cigarette butts.'" In the song, Admiral T declares that he has "come to burn the fags who hang out near city hall," and that the targets of his bigotry are "going to suffer, suffer; they're going to be gassed, gassed." He advises his listeners: "Instead of aiming your gun at your brother, aim it at them..."

“Oyez, Oyez dames et demoiselles” de Gwada (2007, Translation): Je suis journaliste en Guadeloupe et je veux réaliser une enquête sur l’homosexualité féminine en Guadeloupe. ON évoque beaucoup les gays, on en parle abondamment, mais que sait-on des lesbiennes dans ces îles où le sujet est terriblement tabou? Il y a t il une communauté lesbienne en Gwada? Comment vit-on son homosexualité? Il y t il encore plus d’idées reçues et de haine? Ou moins? J’aimerais rencontrer et discuter avec des lesbiennes qui vivent en Guadeloupe. Je suis joignable au 06 90 42 12 33 ou par mail kbilas@hotmail.fr N’hésitez pas à m’appeler, c’est un sujet qui mérite d’être appronfondi et démysthifié.”

La figure du makomè : masque de l'homosexualité masculine dans les mondes guadeloupéens (2002, Translation): (Reference Page, Located in the Book "Dissemblances: jeux et enjeux du genre") "Les pratiques homosexuelles font l’objet d’une stigmatisation et d’un fort déni en Guadeloupe et dans la population guadeloupéenne résidant en métropole. Une recherche ethnographique menée en Ile-de-France, auprès d’hommes et de femmes d’origine guadeloupéenne , a cependant permis une libération de la parole sur ces pratiques, et le recueil de données originales. Dans ce texte, qui porte principalement sur l’homosexualité masculine, je m’attacherai à montrer comment des individus qui initient des relations homosexuelles parviennent à contourner la norme hétérosexuelle sans réellement la contrarier. Je soulignerai par ailleurs comment la place qu’occupe la figure du makòmè dans l’imaginaire collectif guadeloupéen occulte l’existence des pratiques homosexuelles masculines.... À la Guadeloupe, l’homosexuel est désigné par le terme créole péjoratif makòmè. Le makòmè est un homme, qui affiche généralement des comportements et des attributs féminins (dans son langage, sa tenue vestimentaire et ses attitudes corporelles), et qui met en acte des pratiques homosexuelles avec des hommes masculins, parfois contre une compensation financière. Les discours le présentent non pas comme un homme véritable, mais comme un homme-femme. Il n’existe pas d’équivalent féminin du makòmè. « Makòmè » est également une insulte destinée à mettre en doute la masculinité et à ébranler la réputation de celui auquel elle s’adresse..." - makomè (Translation).

Des Guadeloupéens en Ile-de-France. Identité, sexualité, santé (Translation). Editions Karthala (coll. Médecines du Monde) (Reference Page, par Dolorès Pourette): Cet ouvrage présente les résultats d'une recherche ethnographique menée auprès de Guadeloupéens et de Guadeloupéennes vivant en région parisienne. Alors que la Guadeloupe compte parmi les départements francais les plus touchés par l'épidémie de sida, il étudie les modes d'appréhension du risque de contamination dans le contexte migratoire à travers l'analyse de thèmes chers à l'anthropologie : les représentations et pratiques relatives au corps, les constructions sociales de la féminité et de la masculinité, les normes de la sexualité, les perceptions de l'identité et de l'altérité. Tout en offrant des données inédites sur l'expérience de l'homosexualité ou du sida, ce livre permet de déconstruire un certain nombre de stéréotypes sur la sexualité des Antillais-es. Il propose une analyse de la matrifocalité et plus généralement des sociétés antillaises...

Bombereau G (2005). Représentations sociales du VIH/SIDA en Guadeloupe et recommandations à l'usage de la santé publique. La peur ou la mort dans l'âme dans les Antilles françaises. These, Philosophiæ doctor (Ph.D.), Université Laval Québec. Full Text (Translation). Chapitre 5 (Translation)L’homosexuel: ... Retenons bien qu’en Guadeloupe, l’homosexualité est largement méprisée et taboue. Dans ce contexte, l’homosexuel est source d’opprobre social... La figure de l’homosexuel, entendue dans la quasi majorité des cas, comme étant masculine, défie par de nombreux aspects l’ordre religieux, moral et social guadeloupéen. C’est alors une sexualité jugée avant tout comme déviante par la population... Bien plus encore, l’idée de contre nature est, autrement, référée dans le cadre même d’une relation sexuelle. À cet égard, la sodomie où l’homme passif est réceptif incarne la posture extrême la plus répudiée (Mulot, 2000). L’homme est fait pour extérioriser, évacuer et la femme pour recevoir. Aussi, dans ce contexte, l’homme homosexuel rompt avec son identité masculine et se rapproche de la figure féminine... Cependant, derrière ces lectures religieuses, il est néanmoins aisé de repérer une instrumentalisation du discours dans le but de répéter et ainsi asseoir un ordre traditionnel masculin et féminin. Ainsi, si la population guadeloupéenne évoque la condamnation de l’homosexualité en terme religieux, nous pouvons voir derrière ce truchement, une condamnation éminemment sociale et culturelle... L’homosexuel n’apparaît pas tant comme celui qui a une sexualité transgressive que comme celui qui défie les normes sociales ou encore questionne le rapport traditionnel homme-femme. « L’homosexuel choque parce qu’il est quelqu’un qui n’affirme pas une préférence sexuelle pour les femmes, critère prépondérant dans la détermination sociale de l’identité virile » ... Nous sommes donc en présence d’une déviance sociale, masquée derrière une déviance sexuelle, et appuyée par un discours religieux. L’homosexuel transgresse ainsi tout à la fois des limites sociales, morales et religieuses...

Les connaissances, attitudes, croyances et comportements face au VIH/sida aux Antilles [Martinique / Guadekoup] et en Guyane en 2004 (2006): La proportion de personnes ayant déjà eu au moins un partenaire du même sexe est comparable quels que soient les espaces géographiques: Chez les hommes comme chez les femmes, environ 2 à 3 % des personnes interrogées ont indiqué avoir déjà eu, au cours de leur vie, au cours des cinq années ou des douze mois précédant l'enquête, des rapports sexuels avec des partenaires du même sexe qu'elles. Il n'existe pas de différence notable selon les espaces géographiques, contrairement à ce qui avait été observé dans l'enquête ACSAG en 1992 où on notait, dans les DFA, une proportion nettement plus faible qu]en métropole de personnes déclarant avoir déjà eu des rapports homosexuels au cours de leur vie, des cinq ans ou des douze mois précédant l'enquête. L'hypothèse d'une sousd éclaration avait alors été avancée du fait, dans les DFA (notamment aux Antilles), d'une forte stigmatisation à l'égard des personnes ayant des pratiques homosexuelles. En effet, aux Antilles, seulement 6 % des hommes et 11 % des femmes jugeaient « tout à fait » ou « plutôt » acceptable un rapport sexuel entre deux hommes et respectivement 14 % et 11 % un rapport sexuel entre deux femmes. Les résultats observés dans l'enquête KABP 2004 pourraient donc indiquer une meilleure acceptation des pratiques homosexuelles, favorisant une parole plus ouverte à ce sujet. - L'homosexualité mieux acceptée quuparavant mais encore très
stigmatisée, surtout par les hommes
: Bien que les intitulés des questions ne soient pas identiques entre les deux enquêtes, les données recueillies en 2004 permettent en effet de noter une meilleure « acceptation » de l'homosexualité qu'il y a douze ans : 56 % des hommes et 65 % des femmes des DFA indiquent désormais être « tout à fait d'accord » avec l;affirmation selon laquelle « les homosexuels sont
des gens comme les autres ». Pour autant, il reste 26 % des hommes et 16 % des femmes à indiquer n'être « pas du tout d'accord » avec une telle affirmation (contre 8 % et 5 % en métropole). Ce sont les personnes les moins diplômées qui sont les plus nombreuses à déclarer n'être « pas du tout d'accord » avec cette affirmation. Par exemple, en Guyane, 30 % des individus sans diplôme ayant arrêté leur cursus scolaire avant l'âge de 16 ans contre 8 % de ceux ayant un niveau d'études supérieures. On note donc le maintien d'une forte stigmatisation des habitants des DFA à l'égard des personnes homosexuelles...

Epidémiologie de l'infection à VIH-Sida en Guadeloupe (2008, Translation): Si la contamination homosexuelle est le mode de contamination le plus fréquent au niveau national (42 % des cas), elle concernerait 13 % des cas de sida de notre région.

Docteur Marie-Thérèse Sow (MTS), praticien hospitalier à Pointe-à-Pitre (Guadeloupe), coordinatrice médicale CISIH (2008, Translation): Vous dites que l’homosexualité est stigmatisée en Guadeloupe. Comment cela se vit-il ? MTS : C’est terrible. Les homosexuels guadeloupéens quel que soit leur âge, arrivent rarement à dire qu’ils sont homosexuels. Même à nous les soignants, ils ont des difficultés à en parler, et je n’ai jamais reçu en consultation d’homosexuels antillais en couple. Le rejet et la stigmatisation sont très répandus dans la population. Quand des homosexuels sont séropositifs, nous avons de très grandes difficultés en ce qui concerne l’observance à leur traitement.

Plan Regional De Sante Publique De Guadeloupe: Programme 2005 - 2008 De Lutte Contre Le Virus De L’immuno-Deficience Humaine (2005, PDF Download, PDF Download): Le mode de transmission : ... Le mode de transmission est connu chez 86% des patients : - hétérosexuelle (62 % des 86%) - homosexuelle dans 14% des 86%. - Persons living with HIV/AIDS followed in HIV specialized centers (CISIH) in Guadeloupe (French West Indies). Evolution from 1988 to 2002 (2004).

Discrimination au Cheyenne (Guadeloupe)? (2007, Translation) Il existe une boite de nuit en Guadeloupe, située au Gosier dont l’emblème est une énorme tête d’Indien d’Amérique du Nord. Cette boite qui est en apparence très ouverte d’esprit cible sa clientèle dans la population blanche et bekee de la Guadeloupe et demeure un lieu favori des homosexuel(les) vivant ou de passage ici. Jusqu’ici rien à signaler… Cette boite de nuit a cependant une particularité qu’elle evite de crier sur les toits mais qu’elle applique presque systématiquement: elle interdit l’accès aux hommes noirs ayant des locks, des tresses, des nattes et des afros...

Les Antillais et l’homosexualité : l’appel à la tolérance des « Konxs » (2008, Translation): Interview de Julien Dalle, réalisateur de ce film guadeloupéen... Le Festival international cinéma et femme (Fémi), qui se déroule jusqu’au 2 février en Guadeloupe, présente en sélection officielle un film résolument décalé : Les Konxs. A travers son premier long-métrage, le réalisateur Julien Dalle désirait lancer un vibrant appel à l’acceptation de la différence. Pour faire passer le message, ce jeune homme de 28 ans a choisi le thème de l’homosexualité, encore mal vue aux Antilles. Il aborde au passage d’autres thèmes, comme le racisme en France et aux Antilles. Interview... Afrik.com : Pourquoi avoir choisi l’homosexualité pour parler du thème plus global de la tolérance ?  Julien Dalle : A l’époque, et bien avant les problèmes qu’il y a entre les artistes de dancehall et les homosexuels, je trouvais que c’était un bon thème pour mettre le feu aux poudres dans une bande d’amis et ensuite pour décliner tous les autres thèmes qui sont présents dans le film. Je pensais que ce thème était particulièrement intéressant parce que justement aux Antilles on a parfois certaines intolérances qui sont peut-être plus exacerbées et qui peuvent donner lieu à des comportements plus extrêmes. Je me suis dit que si cette bande d’amis de garçons machos avait un ami homosexuel parmi eux, les réactions pourraient être diverses et certaines pourraient être extrêmes...

Agard-Jones, Vanessa (2009). Le Jeu de Qui?1 Sexual Politics at Play in the French Caribbean. CRGS: Caribbean Review of Gender Studies, 3. PDF Download. Abstract: By virtue of their non-independent political status, Martinique and Guadeloupe (France's Antilles) operate under a legal regime unique to the Caribbean vis à vis sexual rights. While in certain independent countries in the region homosexuality is criminalized and “homosexual acts” are punishable by law, France’s legal code both affords protections and extends certain rights, such as access to the PACS (the pacte civil de solidarité is a form of civil union available to both same sex and heterosexual couples in France since 1999), to Martinican and Guadeloupean citizens. This paper seeks to understand the modes of representation that frame lesbian and gay Antilleans as subjects of particular (European) rights and victims of certain (Caribbean) violences. I document the loci of power that emerge as these discourses develop in a circuit between the Caribbean and the metropole, paying particular attention to the questions of legitimacy and authenticity mobilized in these fields. I argue that, despite the best intentions of (mostly) metropolitan-based advocacy groups, these discourses support the mapping of a developmental teleology on the Antilles, labeling them less “modern” than their metropolitan counterparts. I question how this framing dovetails with French nationalism, particularly as it relates to the country’s self-perception as an originator and defender of human rights. Because these discourses sometimes occlude the complicated, everyday experiences of queer Antilleans (both at “home” and in diaspora), I integrate into my analysis conversations with various interlocutors in both the Antilles and in Paris. By examining the politics of sexuality in the French Caribbean, this paper is a simultaneous consideration of teleologies of development and the limits of liberal rights paradigms, as well as a critique of the politics of representation that impact queer lives in the Antilles.

Pourette, Dolorès (2002). La figure du makomè : masque de l'homosexualité masculine dans les mondes guadeloupéens. In: R.-M. Lagrave, A. Gestin, E. Lépinard, G. Pruvost (dir.), Dissemblances. Jeux et enjeux du genre, Paris, 2002, l'Harmattan, p.51-63. EHESS, Paris. Full text. Translation. Excerpt:     Les pratiques homosexuelles font l’objet d’une stigmatisation et d’un fort déni en Guadeloupe et dans la population guadeloupéenne résidant en métropole. Une recherche ethnographique menée en Ile-de-France, auprès d’hommes et de femmes d’origine guadeloupéenne , a cependant permis une libération de la parole sur ces pratiques, et le recueil de données originales. Dans ce texte, qui porte principalement sur l’homosexualité masculine, je m’attacherai à montrer comment des individus qui initient des relations homosexuelles parviennent à contourner la norme hétérosexuelle sans réellement la contrarier. Je soulignerai par ailleurs comment la place qu’occupe la figure du makòmè dans l’imaginaire collectif guadeloupéen occulte l’existence des pratiques homosexuelles masculines. Une homosexualité réprouvée: L’homosexualité fait l’objet d’une forte dévalorisation sociale, à la Guadeloupe et dans la population guadeloupéenne d’Ile-de-France. La norme hétérosexuelle est la seule reconnue et celui ou celle que l’on soupçonne de se livrer à des pratiques homosexuelles subit la réprobation générale. De telles pratiques sont perçues comme des actes « malsains », « contre nature », qui pervertissent l’ordre des sexes en conférant à l’un des partenaires un rôle qu’il n’est pas habilité à jouer. Dans le cas de l’homosexualité masculine, l’un des partenaires est amené à jouer un rôle masculin et l’autre, un rôle féminin, ces rôles étant interchangeables. Cette introduction du féminin dans la sphère masculine bouleverse l’ordre normal des événements et entraîne le rejet social. La personne qui a des rapports sexuels avec une personne du même sexe est rejetée car elle n’assume pas le rôle qui lui est assigné. À la Guadeloupe, l’homosexuel est désigné par le terme créole péjoratif makòmè. Le makòmè est un homme, qui affiche généralement des comportements et des attributs féminins (dans son langage, sa tenue vestimentaire et ses attitudes corporelles), et qui met en acte des pratiques homosexuelles avec des hommes masculins, parfois contre une compensation financière. Les discours le présentent non pas comme un homme véritable, mais comme un homme-femme. Il n’existe pas d’équivalent féminin du makòmè. « Makòmè » est également une insulte destinée à mettre en doute la masculinité et à ébranler la réputation de celui auquel elle s’adresse...

Pourette, Dolorès (2002). Hommes et femmes de la Guadeloupe en Ile-de-France: Pratiques liées au corps, relations entre les sexes et attitudes face au risque de contamination par le VIH. Thèse en ethnologie et anthropologie sociale, sous la direction de Marie-Élisabeth Handman, à l’EHESS (Paris). Full Text. Translation. Excerpt: Nature et contre-nature. Norme et déviance. De la naturalité de la sexualité à la contre-norme homosexuelle: ... Le terme créole makòmè désigne l’homosexuel, entendu comme l’homme efféminé qui a des rapports sexuels avec d’autres hommes. C’est également une insulte destinée à mettre en doute la masculinité et à ébranler la réputation de celui auquel elle s’adresse. Qu’il s’agisse uniquement d’une figure discursive ou que le makòmè existe réellement, il fait l’objet d’une représentation sociale remarquable. L’ampleur des injures et des discours discriminants à son encontre jettent le voile sur les pratiques homosexuelles masculines effectives. Le fait d’assigner le « rôle homosexuel » au makòmè contribue du même coup à nier l’existence des comportements homosexuels mis en œuvre par d’autres hommes. En affirmant que le makòmè est le seul homosexuel, on affirme en même temps que l’homosexualité n’existe pas, puisque le makòmè n’est pas exactement un homme. Les discours dépréciatifs à l’égard du makòmè s’inscrivent dans un contexte plus général où l’homosexualité est fortement stigmatisée. L’enquête menée en Ile-de-France a cependant permis la libération d’une parole sur des pratiques homosexuelles et bisexuelles. Douze hommes et trois femmes de l’échantillon déclarent en effet ce type de pratiques. Dans un contexte social et familial où l’homosexualité est explicitement prohibée, découvrir son attirance pour les individus de même sexe est toujours vécu comme une anomalie, une discordance entre, d’une part, l’obligation de se conformer à la norme hétérosexuelle et, d’autre part, son désir pour les personnes de même sexe. En Guadeloupe, les pratiques homosexuelles se cachent toujours derrière une hétérosexualité normée et affichée. Il existe donc une bisexualité cachée et occultée, par les hommes comme par les femmes, et qui demeure une dimension des relations entre les sexes nullement prise en compte par l’analyse anthropologique. La majorité des hommes rencontrés en métropole et qui ont des pratiques homosexuelles ont choisi de quitter leur île natale afin de vivre leur sexualité plus librement et afin d’échapper au contrôle social exercé en Guadeloupe. Cependant, l’homosexualité masculine fait rarement l’objet d’une revendication identitaire. Les deux seuls hommes qui assument leur homosexualité, qui la vivent ouvertement et qui se déclarent homosexuels sont séropositifs. Les stratégies sexuelles et identitaires des hommes rencontrés visent toutes à les démarquer de l’une des figures les plus discriminées de la société guadeloupéenne, la folle, le makòmè, et à « rester des hommes » malgré tout. Le fait d’avoir – ou d’avoir eu par le passé – des relations hétérosexuelles et le fait d’avoir des enfants apparaissent comme le moyen de conserver une apparence hétérosexuelle. Il importe à ces hommes d’adopter un code vestimentaire et corporel, des façons de s’exprimer, de se déplacer et de se présenter à autrui masculins. La volonté de « rester un homme » et de s’affirmer en tant que tel se manifeste également dans les rôles sexuels. Aucun des hommes rencontrés n’avoue adopter un rôle passif (ou alors de manière très exceptionnelle) et tous se définissent comme partenaires actifs...

GLBT Caribbean Travel (2011): Even though some of the islands of the Caribbean have a reputation for homophobia (Jamaica is a prime example), for most of the islands, once there are no public displays of affection (PDA), most people look the other way and are generally comfortable and friendly with gay and lesbian travelers... Generally speaking, when traveling in the Caribbean, once gay and lesbian travelers remember the PDA rule and all should be well!. The French, Dutch, and US islands welcome gay travelers with open arms and actively promote themselves as "gay friendly"....

Resource Links: - The Gully. - Search GayToday.com Archives.

Global Gayz: Caribbean: Guadeloupe. - ILGA: Guadeloupe- LGBT rights in Guadeloupe. - Sodomy Laws. - The International Encyclopedia of Sexuality:  Guadeloupe Not included.

AN NOU ALLÉ ! CGL Antilles-Guyane & Outre-Mer | Association des NoirEs LGBT & de leurs amiEs en France: Communications de l'année 2007. - Le forum de An Nou Allé! - Gays en Guadeloupe. - Gays en Guadeloupe.

FRee Forum Online (Numerous Articles): No. 1 choice in the fight against AIDS, for men who have sex with men (MSM) and Gay communities in the Caribbean (To 2009). - FRee Forum Issues: #1: Pride 2002. - # 2: World AIDS Day, 2002. - #3: Carnival 2003. - #4: Pride 2003. - #5: World AIDS Day 2003. # 6: Carnival 2004.  - #7: Prde 2004.  #8: World AIDS Day 2004. - # 9: Pride 2005. - # 10: Pride 2005: Advocacy & Human Rights in the Caribbean. - # 11: World AIDS Day 2005: Keeping the Promise. - # 12: What's Your Position: Caribbean Men & HIV. - # 13: Pride 2006. - # 14: World AIDS Day 2006. - # 15: Health & Social issues for the Men who have Sex with Men Communities in the Caribbean. - # 16: Pride 2007. - # 17: World AIDS Day 2007. - # 18: Carnival 2008. - # 19: Pride 2008 - United by Pride = Bound by Equity.  - # 20: Treatment and Care 2008. - # 21: Prevention 2009: Steps Toward Personal Change.  - # 22: Human Rights & Advocacy: Chances to Change, 2009.

MSMGF News Articles & Documents Resources. By Region & Country:  - Caribbean: - French Caribbean

Blabbeando Blog: Latin American GLBTQ News / Commentaries: 2005 to Present.


SAINT BARTHS / SAINT BARTHÉLEMY (Wikipedia):

GLBT Caribbean Travel (2011): Even though some of the islands of the Caribbean have a reputation for homophobia (Jamaica is a prime example), for most of the islands, once there are no public displays of affection (PDA), most people look the other way and are generally comfortable and friendly with gay and lesbian travelers... Generally speaking, when traveling in the Caribbean, once gay and lesbian travelers remember the PDA rule and all should be well!... St Barths is well known as one of the most (if not the most) gay-friendly island in the Caribbean, and it has become a very popular destination for well-to-do gay and lesbian travelers from around the world. Saline Beach is one thousand feet of white sand splendour where nudity is allowed and where gays flock. There is no specific gay scene, gay bar, etc, but same sex couples are welcomed everywhere on St Barths. 

Top 5 Gay and Lesbian Friendly Destinations in the Caribbean: With its laissez-faire French culture and a myriad of private villas to choose from, St. Barts is has been called the most gay-friendly island in the Caribbean. This is the place to get lost in the Caribbean for a few days, far from the cruise-ship crowds..


SAINT MARTIN (Wikipedia): - Attack on St. Martin Worries Gay Groups (2006). - Homophobie: 4 agresseurs condamnés à Saint-Martin (2006, Translation): 3 Saint-Martinois et un Guadeloupéen ont été condamnés à des peines de 6 mois à 6 ans de prison pour l'agression d'un couple de touristes américains homosexuels il y a 7 mois. Cette affaire relance les dérives homophobes qui salissent l'image des Caraïbes.

GLBT Caribbean Travel (2011): Even though some of the islands of the Caribbean have a reputation for homophobia (Jamaica is a prime example), for most of the islands, once there are no public displays of affection (PDA), most people look the other way and are generally comfortable and friendly with gay and lesbian travelers... Generally speaking, when traveling in the Caribbean, once gay and lesbian travelers remember the PDA rule and all should be well!. The French, Dutch, and US islands welcome gay travelers with open arms and actively promote themselves as "gay friendly".... - Art frenzy and gay atmosphere in St Martin, Caribbean (2010).

Top 5 Gay and Lesbian Friendly Destinations in the Caribbean: Both Dutch St. Maarten and French St. Martin have long had a gay-friendly reputation, with many private villas for rent and beaches and bars where gay and straight couples peacefully coexist.

Resource Links: - The Gully. - Search GayToday.com Archives.

Global Gayz: Caribbean: Saint Martin. - ILGA: Saint Martin- LGBT rights in Saint Martin. - Sodomy Laws. - The International Encyclopedia of Sexuality:  Saint Martin Not included.

AN NOU ALLÉ ! CGL Antilles-Guyane & Outre-Mer | Association des NoirEs LGBT & de leurs amiEs en France: Communications de l'année 2007. - Le forum de An Nou Allé!

FRee Forum Online (Numerous Articles): No. 1 choice in the fight against AIDS, for men who have sex with men (MSM) and Gay communities in the Caribbean (To 2009). - FRee Forum Issues: #1: Pride 2002. - # 2: World AIDS Day, 2002. - #3: Carnival 2003. - #4: Pride 2003. - #5: World AIDS Day 2003. # 6: Carnival 2004.  - #7: Prde 2004.  #8: World AIDS Day 2004. - # 9: Pride 2005. - # 10: Pride 2005: Advocacy & Human Rights in the Caribbean. - # 11: World AIDS Day 2005: Keeping the Promise. - # 12: What's Your Position: Caribbean Men & HIV. - # 13: Pride 2006. - # 14: World AIDS Day 2006. - # 15: Health & Social issues for the Men who have Sex with Men Communities in the Caribbean. - # 16: Pride 2007. - # 17: World AIDS Day 2007. - # 18: Carnival 2008. - # 19: Pride 2008 - United by Pride = Bound by Equity.  - # 20: Treatment and Care 2008. - # 21: Prevention 2009: Steps Toward Personal Change.  - # 22: Human Rights & Advocacy: Chances to Change, 2009.

MSMGF News Articles & Documents Resources. By Region & Country:  - Caribbean: - French Caribbean

Blabbeando Blog: Latin American GLBTQ News / Commentaries: 2005 to Present. 



SAINT VINCENT and THE GRENADINES (Wikipedia): -

Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 2009 Constitution: A summary of the Human Rights concerns (2009): Discrimination based on sexual orientation and marital status: 3.7 Article 17(2) defines marriage as “a legal union only between a person who is biologically male at birth and a person who is biologically female at birth”. This formulation limits rights for both homosexual and transsexual couples. Article 17(1) states that is the “natural basic unit of society” indicating a clear preferential bias in favour of the traditional family. There is no discrimination provision aimed at protecting individuals from discrimination on the basis of their marital status. The anti-discrimination provisions in other areas of the constitution do not appear to affect Article 17. - 3.8 This has overtly homophobic implications and is especially worrying in light of the general record of St Vincent and the Grenadines and other countries in the region when it comes to addressing discrimination based on sexual orientation. The US State Department that there have over the course of the last few years, been numerous reports of discrimination against homosexuals as well as those suffering from HIV/AIDS. None of the anti- discrimination provisions reference sexual orientation and there are no specific provisions mentioned in relation to single parent families or unmarried couples.

Submission for the UPR review of Saint Vincent and the Grenadines: Recommendation: We therefore recommend that the Human Rights Council, in its upcoming UPR review, urge Saint Vincent and the Grenadines to bring its legislation into conformity with its commitment to equality and non‐discrimination, and its international human rights obligations, by repealing all provisions which may be applied to criminalise sexual activity between consenting adults.

Saint Vincent and the Grenadines; Respect for Human Rights (2011): Societal Abuses, Discrimination, and Acts of Violence Based on Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity:
There are no laws that prohibit discrimination against a person on the basis of sexual orientation. Homosexual acts for both sexes are illegal under indecency statutes, and some male homosexual acts are also illegal under anal intercourse laws. Indecency statutes carry a maximum penalty of five years, and anal intercourse carries a maximum penalty of 10 years in prison. Although no statistics were available, anecdotal evidence suggested there was social discrimination against lesbians, gays, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) persons in the deeply conservative society. There were few openly LGBT persons in the country.

Resource Links: - The Gully. - Search GayToday.com Archives.

Global Gayz: Caribbean: Saint Vincent and the Grenadines. Saint Vincent and the Grenadines News Reports from 2006 to the Present. - ILGA: Saint Vincent and the GrenadinesLGBT rights in Saint Vincent and the Grenadines. - Sodomy Laws. - The International Encyclopedia of Sexuality:  Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Not included.

FRee Forum Online (Numerous Articles): No. 1 choice in the fight against AIDS, for men who have sex with men (MSM) and Gay communities in the Caribbean (To 2009). - FRee Forum Issues: #1: Pride 2002. - # 2: World AIDS Day, 2002. - #3: Carnival 2003. - #4: Pride 2003. - #5: World AIDS Day 2003. # 6: Carnival 2004.  - #7: Prde 2004.  #8: World AIDS Day 2004. - # 9: Pride 2005. - # 10: Pride 2005: Advocacy & Human Rights in the Caribbean. - # 11: World AIDS Day 2005: Keeping the Promise. - # 12: What's Your Position: Caribbean Men & HIV. - # 13: Pride 2006. - # 14: World AIDS Day 2006. - # 15: Health & Social issues for the Men who have Sex with Men Communities in the Caribbean. - # 16: Pride 2007. - # 17: World AIDS Day 2007. - # 18: Carnival 2008. - # 19: Pride 2008 - United by Pride = Bound by Equity.  - # 20: Treatment and Care 2008. - # 21: Prevention 2009: Steps Toward Personal Change.  - # 22: Human Rights & Advocacy: Chances to Change, 2009.

MSMGF News Articles & Documents Resources. By Region & Country:  - Caribbean: - Saint Vincent and the Grenadines

Blabbeando Blog: Latin American GLBTQ News / Commentaries: 2005 to Present.

NETHERLANDS ANTILLES (Aruba, Bonaire and Curaçao [The ABC islands] and Sint Eustatius, Saba and Sint Maarten) (Wikipedia): - Homo kan op overgebleven Nederlandse Antillen trouwen (2009, Translation). - Antilliaanse homo uit de kast? (2009, Translation). - Kamer wil homohuwelijk op Antillen (2009, Translation): De Tweede Kamer heeft dinsdag een GroenLinks-motie aangenomen die het homohuwelijk binnenkort ook op Aruba en de Nederlandse Antillen mogelijk moet maken. GroenLinks-Kamerlid Ineke van Gent reageert opgetogen: "Dit is grote winst voor homo's op de eilanden". - Onderzoek naar homo-emancipatie Antillen en Aruba (2010, Translation). - Antillen en Aruba erkennen homorechten (2010, Translation): Vorig jaar diende een zaak op Curaçao van een lesbische werkneemster tegen haar werkgever, die haar partner weigerde mee te verzekeren. Zij verloor die zaak. Het Hof oordeelde dat een Nederlands homohuwelijk wel erkend wordt, maar dat er verder geen rechten aan ontleend kan worden. - Protest na anti-homo uitspraken (2011, Translation): Homovereniging Pink House op Curaçao zal - als het nodig is - de parlementsvoorzitter Asjes inschakelen om te protesteren tegen de anti-homo uitingen die zijn gedaan in het Surinaamse parlement.

Homohuwelijk ergste steen des aanstoots op Bonaire (2010, Translation): Het homohuwelijk stuit op Bonaire nog meer dan abortus en euthanasie op verzet. Ook bij ambtenaren van het bureau Burgerzaken ligt dit erg gevoelig. Ze willen geen huwelijken sluiten tussen mensen van hetzelfde geslacht. - Curaçao vraagt Amsterdam steun bij homobeleid (2010, Translation): Amsterdam is bereid verkennende gesprekken te voeren over de mogelijkheid van samenwerking met Curaçao op het gebied van homo-emancipatie. Dat zei de Amsterdamse wethouder Andrée van Es (Diversiteit en Integratie) woensdag. Ze is op werkbezoek op het Caribische eiland. De Curaçaose homo-organisatie Foko had de wethouder om samenwerking gevraagd. - Sint Eustatius weigert homo-huwelijk, abortus en euthanasie (2010, Translation): De vijfkoppige Eilandsraad van Sint Eustatius heeft unaniem een motie aangenomen waarin de invoering van het homo-huwelijk en het recht op abortus en euthanasie worden verworpen. - Caribbean Island Wants Gay Code Of Conduct (2011): They want local Parliament to impose a code of conduct to prevent them making public displays of affection... But of course,  they are free to impose their ‘heterosexual’ way of life upon us with public displays of affection! They want our money,  but not us as equal people. - Art frenzy and gay atmosphere in St Martin, Caribbean (2010).

In dit hoofdstuk presenteert minister Guusje ter Horst van Binnenlandse Zaken en Koninkrijksrelaties (BZK) het specifieke homo-emancipatiebeleid van haar ministerie (2011, Translation): 'Weinig toezeggingen en initiatieven maar met name toelichtingen maken het hoofdstuk over Binnenlandse Zaken en Koninkrijksrelaties mager', stelt COC-voorzitter Frank van Dalen vast. 'Kansen die er liggen worden niet ingekopt, zoals aanpassing van artikel 1 van de Grondwet. Wel zijn er plannen, tot vreugde van het COC, om homoseksuele zelforganisaties op de Nederlandse Antillen en Aruba te steunen'. - Curaçao opent homo-ontmoetingscentrum (2010, Translation): Op Curaçao is het eerste homo-ontmoetingscentrum geopend. De activiteiten in Casa Rosada in de wijk Otrabanda moeten helpen het taboe op homoseksualiteit in de samenleving te doorbreken.

Same-sex marriage in Aruba, Curaçao and Sint Maarten (Wikipedia): Same-sex marriages are not conducted in Aruba, Curaçao or Sint Maarten, which are constituent countries of the Kingdom of the Netherlands. Since many of the residents of the countries are Catholic, the issue of same-sex marriage is one where opposition is large. The islands were however obliged after several court rulings to recognize any marriage (including same-sex marriages) registered anywhere in the Kingdom. As marriage in the European territory of the Netherlands is open to people of any gender, marriages registered there have to be accepted in the other islands. - Gay Marriage Coming to The Netherlands Antilles (2010). - Resistance against same-sex marriages on St Eustatius (2010): Two women who want to marry? It is an issue many people on the Dutch Caribbean island of St Eustatius are horrified by. Not to mention euthanasia and abortion. St Eustatius is threatening to go to the United Nations in protest against some aspects of Dutch legislation being imposed on them. - Exit Netherlands Antilles, enter marriage equality to the Caribbean (2010): In less than a month, on 10 October 2010, the Netherlands Antilles, comprising the Caribbean islands of Curaçao, Bonaire, Sint Eustatius, Saba, and Sint Maarten, are scheduled to be dissolved as a unified political entity, so that each constituent territory can attain a new constitutional status within the Kingdom of the Netherlands... This means that finally and for the first time in the Caribbean, same-sex marriages will be legally performed.

Aruba blijft zich verzetten tegen Nederlands homohuwelijk (2008, Translation). - Antillen blijven halsstarrig tegen homohuwelijk (2008, Translation). -  Netherlands Forces Homosexual ‘Marriage’ on Aruba (2007): Aruba's government lawyer: "Gay marriage is against the civil code and Aruban morals." The Caribbean island state of Aruba must recognize same-sex marriages performed in the Netherlands, the Dutch Supreme Court ruled April 13, forcing legal recognition of homosexual marriages in the Netherlands Antilles and Aruba, as well as the Netherlands proper... The government of Aruba appealed the case a second time to the Supreme Court, with the support of much of the population--Aruba is 80% Roman Catholic. “If we accept gay marriage, would we next have to accept Holland's marijuana bars and euthanasia?” said government spokesman Ruben Trapenberg in 2005. “They have their culture, we have ours.” - Gay Marriage In The Caribbean N/A (2007): Gay marriage goes tropical! It has reached the Caribbean. The island Aruba, part of the Kingdom of the Netherlands, was ordered last Friday by the Dutch Supreme Court to register the marriage of a lesbian couple. The Court ruled that a marriage certificate signed by an official of the Netherlands, carried the "same force of law" in Aruba. This is the final outcome of a four year legal battle. - Homohuwelijk veroorzaakt computerstoring op Aruba (2007, Translation): Weinig zaken zijn zo kontroversieel en taboe in onze contreien als homoseksualiteit. Het toeval wil echter dat Koninkrijkspartner Nederland wereldwijd voorop loopt in het gelijkschakelen van relaties tussen personen ongeacht hun sekse. Twee dames wilden zich in 2001 inschrijven bij de Burgerlijke Stand op Aruba. Hun verzoek werd geweigerd en zij gingen naar de rechter. Begin 2005 stelde deze hen in het gelijk. Volgens Artikel 40 van Het Statuut dient iedere officiële akte van een land binnen ons Koninkrijk door ieder ander land binnen het Koninkrijk geaccepteerd te worden. Rudy Croes sprak van Een zwarte dag voor Aruba. De Arubaanse regering is tegen de uitspraak in beroep gegaan.. - Aruba must recognise Dutch gay weddings (2005). - Gay Marriage Rankles Conservative Aruba (2005). - Antillen en Aruba langzaam homovriendelijker (Translation).

‘Smaller’ islands refuse to be dictated to on gay marriage (2006): The three “smaller” islands Bonaire, Saba and St. Eustatius don’t want to be pressured by The Hague into accepting gay marriages when they become Dutch overseas municipalities. “(The Dutch) have to take into consideration the cultural values and differences. We are not ready yet,” said Statia’s Commissioner Roy Hooker on Tuesday. “Saba has always been tolerant where it comes to gay people. We have no problem with that. But marriage is different,” said Saba’s Commissioner Will Johnson. “We have no problem with registering gay married couples. But marriage itself, no, we would rather not,” said Bonaire’s UPB leader Ramoncito Booi. The three islands want to determine their own courses where it comes to gay marriages. “It should be left up to the islands,” said Johnson, who doesn’t think the issue of gay marriages is big, but rather controversial.- Pechtold terughoudend homo-emancipatie Aruba en Antillen (2006, Translation): Minister Pechtold stelt zich terughoudend op voor wat betreft de Nederlandse bemoeienis met de emancipatie van homoseksuelen op Aruba en de Antillen. Dat antwoordt hij op Kamervragen van partijgenoot Lousewies van der Laan.

St. Maarten Gay Bash Update (2006): Two suspects are reportedly being held in connection with the gay bashing of CBS News producer Dick Jefferson and his friend Ryan Smith on the island of St. Maarten. - After Gay-Bashing Crime, St. Maarten Awaits Greta Van Susteren’s Wrath (2006). - St. Maarten, Another Island Paradise with some serious issues: Gay Bashing Case Lost in Translation? (2006). - Attack on St. Martin Worries Gay Groups (2006). - Homophobie: 4 agresseurs condamnés à Saint-Martin (2006, Translation): 3 Saint-Martinois et un Guadeloupéen ont été condamnés à des peines de 6 mois à 6 ans de prison pour l'agression d'un couple de touristes américains homosexuels il y a 7 mois. Cette affaire relance les dérives homophobes qui salissent l'image des Caraïbes.

St. Maarten is a warm mix of cultures, sexual orientations (2008): On April 6, 2006, an islander attacked two gay tourists and smashed their skulls with a tire iron. The first known assault of this kind here in many years, the incident sent shock waves through island and the Caribbean. Meanwhile, a small newspaper called Today published an editorial calling the victims "faggots" and "homos" and suggesting that the prohibition of gay bashing is an American concept imposed on the world. Reader response was swift and angry. Several government, police and tourism officials gave press statements saying the attack was unacceptable..

Saba: The Caribbean's unspoiled queen (2007): Gay life... Saba is notably gay-friendly. Glenn Holm, the director of the tourist bureau, is openly gay, and several other prominent people on the island are out. That said, keep the scale of the place in mind. Fewer than 1,500 people live on Saba, and there are seldom more than 100 tourists on the island at any given time. Gay and lesbian visitors should feel comfortable on Saba, but the island is not a gay party destination by any stretch.

Saba, a Gay Friendly Island: Saba, is not only gay friendly to its tourists but has a considerable local gay and lesbian community.  Unlike some Caribbean destinations, the gay friendly attitude is not a recent marketing ploy, it's just the way it is.  Whether gay or straight, people don't come to Saba to get picked up at a limbo bar or dance the night away.  Saba is chosen for its incredible beauty, peacefulness, fantastic scuba diving and nature walks.  Without the marketing might and advertising dollars of larger destinations, only the few discerning travelers discover this gem. - Tiny island offers big welcome to gay travelers: While there are no gay bars or nightlife to speak of, Saba has earned a gay-friendly reputation. - Caribbean resort pitches for gay honeymoons with 'queen' freebie. - Saba: The most beautiful of all the gay friendly islands in the entire Caribbean is the very tiny little island of Saba, off the coast of St Martin. Saba is not only gay friendly to its tourists but has a considerable local gay and lesbian community.

Bon Bini From The Gay Friendly Netherlands Antilles: Curacao puts the friendly in gay friendly (2004): "The five member isles of the Netherlands Antilles (Curaçao, Bonaire, St. Eustacia, Saba and St. Maarten), are collectively the most gay friendly destination in the West Indies. Unlike the former British colonies of Bahamas, Turks & Caicos, Jamaica and Belize, which have all refused entry to gay cruise ships, the Netherlands Antilles have a long reputation for welcoming all people. The Dutch Caribbean has never had anti-sodomy laws to repeal..."

St. Martin / St. Maarten: The smallest island in the world ever to have been partitioned between two different nations, St. Martin/St. Maarten has been shared by the French and the Dutch in a spirit of neighborly cooperation and mutual friendship for almost 350 years... The best way to meet fellow queers is at Cupecoy Beach, close to the Dutch-French border on the western side of the island. It's a string of three, white-sand beaches set against a backdrop of caves, beautiful rock formations and cliffs. Gays can also be found on the beaches of Baie Rouge and Orient Beach, both also nude. Beyond the beach and shopping scene, the island has great deep-sea fishing, and scuba diving is excellent, with various reef, wreck, night, cave and drift diving options. Also, you have gay bars (Eros) or very gay friendly bars (David's Bar), gay guesthouse on French side (Villa Rainbow - Pic Paradis), gay hotel on Dutch side (Delfina) and ‘The villa Rainbow’ (http:www.villarainbow.fr).

Study: Attitudes of  General Practitioners Toward Homosexuals in the Netherlands Antilles (PowerPoint Presentation) (Alternate Link): "Results (Index Attitudes to Homosexuality)  Lower scores on this scale reflect more tolerant attitudes to homosexuals. Caribbean-born doctors had average score of 54.2, non-Caribbean born doctors scored 29 (p<.004) 67% Caribbean born physicians had scores in homophobic range c/w only 14% non-Caribbean born (Dutch/EU) - Results (ISSP) Higher scores on this scale reflect more positive attitudes to homosexuals. Caribbean-born doctors had average score of 19.8, non-Caribbean born doctors 71.4 (p= 0.016) A high correlation was noted between individual scores on the ISSP and IAH scales (r=0.79). - Attitudes of general practitioners towards homosexuals in the Caribbean.

Epidemiologie van soa’s bij Antillianen in Nederland (2010, Translation): Uit gegevens van soa-poliklinieken en screening op Chlamydia trachomatis blijken Antillianen meer risico op soa’s en co-infecties te lopen dan niet-Antilliaanse deelnemers. Dit artikel geeft de belangrijkste epidemiologische gegevens weer van de groep Antillianen (inclusief Arubanen) in Nederland. Ook wordt ingegaan op de ‘brug’ die zou kunnen ontstaan voor de verspreiding van hiv en soa’s door het verkeer tussen in Nederland woonachtige Antillianen en het land van herkomst, de voormalige Nederlandse Antillen.

GLBT Caribbean Travel (2011): Even though some of the islands of the Caribbean have a reputation for homophobia (Jamaica is a prime example), for most of the islands, once there are no public displays of affection (PDA), most people look the other way and are generally comfortable and friendly with gay and lesbian travelers... Generally speaking, when traveling in the Caribbean, once gay and lesbian travelers remember the PDA rule and all should be well!... Saba is a very gay friendly destination and now has the gay owned and operated Shearwater Resort, complete with the island's only gay lounge and pool-side bar. Everyone is welcome everywhere on Saba... Curacao not only has gay bars and hotels that are members of IGLTA, but the island's Tourist Board has a section of their website that is totally dedicated to gay and lesbian travelers - how's that for forward thinking! Sunset Waters Beach is a magnificent nudist beach that attracts a gay crowd. Avalon is a touch of South Beach in Curacao, including the gay-friendly attitude. It is located in the GLBT-popular area of Otrabanda and has a large following of both gay and lesbian customers. There is a very extensive martini menu that attracts locals and visitors in droves, plus exciting tapas and sushi. Remember to leave room for the delectable desserts... Cupecoy Beach is the gay beach on St Maarten, and is usually choc-a-block with nude and semi-nude buff bodies. St Maarten also boasts gay and lesbian friendly bars that have GLBT nights... The Dutch islands tend to be less homophobic, and Aruba is no exception. Pinchos Grill & Bar specializes in kebabs, and this very romantic restaurant is located at the end of a pier over the sea, and is well known for it's excellent and innovative cuisine, as well as the gay and lesbian friendly environment.

Top 5 Gay and Lesbian Friendly Destinations in the Caribbean: Both Dutch St. Maarten and French St. Martin have long had a gay-friendly reputation, with many private villas for rent and beaches and bars where gay and straight couples peacefully coexist. St. Maarten's reputation was sullied somewhat by a 2004 incident where a gay couple was assaulted near a popular beach bar, but island tourism officials were quick to apologize, and the island remains near the top of the list for many gay Caribbean travelers... While some Caribbean island privately welcome gay travelers, Curacao has been the most public in its embrace: "With exceptional gay friendly hotels and attractions, [Curacao] encourages gay and lesbian travelers to visit the island and experience its 'live and let live' atmosphere for themselves," says the Curacao Tourist Board, which has launched a marketing campaign aimed at gays and lesbians and includes information on gay-friendly hotels and clubs on its website..

Resource Links: - Our Commitment To Gay And Lesbian Travelers: With exceptional gay-friendly hotels and attractions, the Curaçao Tourist Board encourages gay and lesbian travelers to visit the island and experience its 'live and let live' atmosphere for themselves. "The Curaçao Tourist Board reiterates its commitment to increasing Curaçao's profile as a gay-friendly travel destination," commented Evita Nita, Executive Director of the Curaçao Tourist Board. "It is important to us that it's known to the gay & lesbian community that everyone is welcome in Curaçao. Our island offers diverse culture, art galleries, beaches, museums, fine accommodations, and exquisite cuisine that are enjoyed by all visitors to the island." - Gay Curaçao: We live and Let Live!

The Gully. - Search GayToday.com Archives. - Aruba gay news. - Apex N/A: (Archive Link) The group was founded on 10 December 1994, on Curaçao, Netherlands Antilles.

Global Gayz: Caribbean: - Nederlandse AntillenGay Netherlands Antilles News & Reports From 2004 to the Present. - Aruba. Gay Aruba News & Reports From 2005 to the Present. - Curacao. Gay Curacoa News & Reports From 2005 to the Present.

FRee Forum Online (Numerous Articles): No. 1 choice in the fight against AIDS, for men who have sex with men (MSM) and Gay communities in the Caribbean (To 2009). - FRee Forum Issues: #1: Pride 2002. - # 2: World AIDS Day, 2002. - #3: Carnival 2003. - #4: Pride 2003. - #5: World AIDS Day 2003. # 6: Carnival 2004.  - #7: Prde 2004.  #8: World AIDS Day 2004. - # 9: Pride 2005. - # 10: Pride 2005: Advocacy & Human Rights in the Caribbean. - # 11: World AIDS Day 2005: Keeping the Promise. - # 12: What's Your Position: Caribbean Men & HIV. - # 13: Pride 2006. - # 14: World AIDS Day 2006. - # 15: Health & Social issues for the Men who have Sex with Men Communities in the Caribbean. - # 16: Pride 2007. - # 17: World AIDS Day 2007. - # 18: Carnival 2008. - # 19: Pride 2008 - United by Pride = Bound by Equity.  - # 20: Treatment and Care 2008. - # 21: Prevention 2009: Steps Toward Personal Change.  - # 22: Human Rights & Advocacy: Chances to Change, 2009.
ILGA: Netherlands Antilles. Aruba- LGBT rights in Aruba. - LGBT rights in the Netherlands. - Sodomy Laws. - The International Encyclopedia of Sexuality: Netherlands and the Autonomous Dutch Antilles (Koninkrijk der Nederlanden).

MSMGF News Articles & Documents Resources. By Region & Country:  - Caribbean: - Aruba. Dutch Antilles

Blabbeando Blog: Latin American GLBTQ News / Commentaries: 2005 to Present.

 

To "The SEARCH Section" For The Best Search Engines & Information Directories, The Searchable Sites to Locate Papers & Abstracts... and The Sites - Some Searchable - Where "Free Papers" Are Available!  

BAHAMAS (Wikipedia): - Bahamas Govt Against Gay Marriage (2011): Not surprising, the Government of The Bahamas felt it necessary to explain its so-called support for gay rights by making it known that it does not support gay marriage, in a legislative move that satisfies the Christian Council which was concerned that the state backing gay rights could open the door to gay marriages. - Government against gay marriages (2011) - Bahamas backs gay rights (2011). - Bahamas' support for UN gay rights resolution 'a long time coming' (2011, Alternate Link). - Friends say photographer's murder was a hate crime (2011). - Cables examine Bahamian views on gay rights (2011): As many Bahamians remain divided on the issue of gay rights in light of a recent United Nations Human Rights Council vote, some of them may find U.S. diplomats' views on Bahamian sexual attitudes telling. A U.S. diplomatic cable obtained by The Nassau Guardian through WikiLeaks described Bahamian culture as one that "celebrates heterosexual prowess", while still proclaiming its "overt religiosity." "Bahamians also wryly acknowledge their compartmentalized religious beliefs, commemorated in a popular Bahamian ballad recounting the shortcomings of the 'Sunday Christian' who weekly repents their previous six days of sinfulness," the cable asserted. Bahamians who came out publicly against gay rights were also described as more "loud" than "violent."

Three Stooges of Christianity on an Anti-Gay Tirade (2011): In a stunning display of idiocy, ignorance and incomprehensibility a pastoral trinity of Lyall Bethel, Allan Lee and Cedric Moss fired off a knee-jerk tirade cum letter to the editor generally confused about the facts on the matters on which they pontificated with smugness, sweated brow and frenzied abandon. They were promiscuously responding to imagined threats that only through prejudicial and tortured thinking one, or in this case, the three of them divined in comments made by Deputy Prime Minister and Minister of Foreign Affairs Brent Symonette.  In light of their indiscriminate and poorly reasoned letter the pastoral posse had the temerity to label these comments as “seemingly arbitrary”..

Homosexuality and the Bahamas (2010): .Homosexuality is one of the biggest sore points in Bahamian society. Homophobia once drove hundreds to converge in a public square to protest a gay cruise. In 2004 that mob screamed at tourists disembarking their ship that they would not allow them to "take our children." Many seem to imagine that gays lurk in dark corners or back alleys committing illicit, immoral, non-Christian acts. Gays are our modern day "boogie men" ready to snatch little children away to corrupt and convert to an abhorrent lifestyle. - Filmmaker tackles homophobia in the Bahamas (2009): "Two of them I knew personally," he says. "One was the subject of a documentary I produced -- he had AIDS and was killed very violently near where I live. He was almost decapitated. Another guy, a fashion designer, was stabbed multiple times in his house." - Bahamian Ayatollahs on Homosexual Warpath Again (2010): One is hard-pressed to discern what drives people like Lyall Bethel of the Coalition of Evangelical Pastors to become so obsessed with an imaginary plot to take over the world that he and others like to refer to as "the gay militant agenda". - The Bahamas backs removing protection for gay people in UN resolution (2010).

Killing Gays in The Bahamas is Practically Legal (2009): A Bahamian court's murder acquittal of a man who claimed he stabbed a gay, HIV-positive man to death while defending himself against an attempted rape, has attracted the attention and concern of gay communities around the world. Last week, a Supreme Court jury decided that Frederick Green-Neely, 25, should be absolved of a murder charge stemming from the February 9, 2004 stabbing death of Dale Williams. Green-Neely had told the jury that he stabbed Williams three times after Williams grabbed his genitals. Green-Neely's attorney, Dorsey McPhee, had argued that his client was "defending his manhood" and Williams' death was lustified". - Gay Murders in Nassau, Bahamas (2008): Four gay men have been murdered in Nassau in the past 8 months. Two were last November, two more recently. There have been no arrests in any of these cases. At least three of the men seem to have been prominent, out gay men (one was a famous handbag designer, another a leading AIDS activist). In the November murders (which happened the same night), speculation became that this was gay-on-gay violence. However, it now seems that it could be possible that someone is intentionally targeting prominent, out gay men. - Another Gay Man Butchered in Nassau, Bahamas (2008): Former dancer and personal trainer Paul Whylly was found dead in his car with multiple stab wounds about the body early yesterday morning near the South Beach Pools, off East Street South. .

Bahamas Blog International - The Dollars And Cents Of The Bahamas' "gay and lesbian lifestyle ban" (2007): The Bahamas needs to decide whether it can afford the damage a "gay and lesbian lifestyle ban" would have on its $2-billion tourism industry, said a member of an international gay rights group. In an interview with The Guardian yesterday, Brian Winfield, communications director of Equality Florida - the state's umbrella organization for gay and lesbian rights — said The Bahamas was already treading on thin ice with the international gay community. The strained relationship has everything to do with the very vocal and highly publicized anti-gay protests against Rosie O'Donnell's Family Vacation Cruise Ship in 2004. - Bahamas Finally Realizing Homophobia Can Mean Economic Hit (2007).

Brokeback ban stirs controversy in Bahamas (2006): The banning in the Bahamas of the "Brokeback Mountain" movie has stirred controversy in the island chain, in what a gay group called "an attempt to censor an entire community." - Bahamas outlaws Brokeback movie (2006): A decision to ban Brokeback Mountain from cinemas in the Bahamas has sparked outrage from gay rights groups. - Teen Queen Claims Discrimination (2005): A confession from the reigning Miss Teen Bahamas that she is a lesbian has clouded the beauty pageant in a scandal. - Bahamas Should Cultivate Tolerance (2006).

The Rainbow Alliance of The Bahamas (to 2007): News Items:  Christian Council against the LOGO channel: Not surprising, The Bahamas Christian council is once again demonstrating an unbelievable level of fascism in that members of that organisation clearly do not believe that adults should have freedom of choice when it comes to what they are allowed to watch on Cable TV. This same Council threw its full support behind the banning of “Brokeback Mountain” in 2006, and is now urging Cable Bahamas not to carry LOGO, a channel catering to the gay and lesbian community. - Senator opposes same-sex domestic violence protection. - Brokeback Mountain banned. - Gay man says cops beat him. - The Rainbow Alliance of The Bahamas (After 2007):

Bahamas Apologizes to Gay Passengers (1998). - Anti-homophobia speech by Prime Minister of the Bahamas N/A. - Govt Has No Problem With Gay Cruise: The government of The Bahamas will not discriminate against a gay cruise scheduled to call on ports in Nassau and Freeport at month's end (2004). - Rosie O' Donnell plans gay cruise to Bahamas (2004). - Gay Cruise Met by Protesters in Bahamas (2004). - Gay cruise met by protestors in the Bahamas (2004). - Rosie's Fantastic Voyage (2006): Her Talk Show Ended, Her Magazine Shut Down, but Rosie O'Donnell Comes Back in Shipshape Form with a New Film About Her Cruise for Gay and Lesbian Families.

A lesson for The Bahamas? (2007): It appears as if members of the gay and lesbian community have decided to teach The Bahamas a lesson as a result of the anti-gay protest they encountered three years ago when a cruise ship chartered for what was billed as a "Gay Family Values Cruise" docked in Nassau harbour. Openly-gay television personality Rosie O'Donnell has once again chartered a cruise ship, the Norwegian Dawn, for a gay cruise scheduled for this July. This time around, however, Nassau is not included in its scheduled ports of call, although it does plan to make a stop in The Bahamas at Great Stirrup Cay, a private island owned by Norwegian Cruise Lines in the Berry Islands chain. - Bermuda cut as stop on Rosie’s gay cruise (2007). - Should gay ships stop in homophobic ports-’o-call? (2010): The Bahamas does not have a law banning LGBT discrimination and a series of anti-gay incidents in recent years have sparked international outrage. They include the 2004 picketing of Rosie O’Donnell’s Family Vacations cruise, the 2006 ban on screening the film "Brokeback Mountain," a 2007 police raid on a gay cruise party and the 2009 jury acquittal of a man who used the "gay panic" defense in the murder of an HIV-positive male. .

'Homosexuality running strong in Parliament' rally told: No votes for gays in next election demands pastor (2004): " Homosexuality is gaining in popularity in The Bahamas, because it has strong support in Parliament, hundreds attending a feverish anti-homosexual rally hosted by the Save the Bahamas Campaign at Rawson Square's northern side on Sunday, were told. "We've got to fight this thing in Parliament because we got too many sissies in Parliament," said Apostle Christopher Wallace of The Christian Tabernacle... Meanwhile, seven members of the gay and lesbian advocacy group Rainbow Alliance stood at the southern side of Rawson Square sucking big red lollipops. One of the group's more vocal members Erin Greene began to argue with a participant of the rally after being provoked. But physical contact was avoided as Greene was pulled away by a fellow Rainbow member. The alliance also had a camera woman who filmed the rally." - Bahamas Bucks Gay Agenda (2006): Pastor Lyall Bethel (of Grace Gospel Chapel) and others recently drew our attention to the "Homosexual Agenda" to take over the world. After much research we were able to confirm that this master plan does exist. Here’s an excerpt from the document that we were able to pull down from a secret web site...

YouTube: Homosexuals in the Bahamas 1, 2.  Homosexuals in the Bahamas: Brother Vic Talks about growing up a homosexual. We go famous bahamas gay club to see homosexuals in action.

Children of God (2010): a gay movie from the Bahamas that is both a tragedy and a triumph. Sounds like Shakespeare, but the movie films like it, in a somber mood.  The film is about Johnny, who is a shy, introvert artist and who was sent by his art teacher to a seaside island to give him time to think and explore his creative side. There... he met Romeo, this hunky, closeted gay guy who likes him and his oddness. The two developed a secret romance until Johnny found out that Romeo Romeo has a girlfriend. He was devastated. On the other hand, a wife of a preacher was told by her doctor that she need to take pills to cure his venereal disease which she gets from her husband. She's a devout Christian who is spearheads the campaign, "Save Bahamas" from the sins of homosexuality. Little did she know that her husband cruise the gay bars for sensual homosexual pleasure...

Resource Links: - The Gully. - Search GayToday.com Archives. - The Rainbow Alliance of The Bahamas (RAB): News. - OUR VOICES Bahamas LGBT Blogs.

Global Gayz: Caribbean: Bahamas. Bahamas News Reports from 2003 to the Present. - ILGA: Bahamas- LGBT rights in the Bahamas- Sodomy Laws: Bahamas. - The International Encyclopedia of Sexuality:  Bahamas Not Included.

FRee Forum Online (Numerous Articles): No. 1 choice in the fight against AIDS, for men who have sex with men (MSM) and Gay communities in the Caribbean (To 2009). - FRee Forum Issues: #1: Pride 2002. - # 2: World AIDS Day, 2002. - #3: Carnival 2003. - #4: Pride 2003. - #5: World AIDS Day 2003. # 6: Carnival 2004.  - #7: Prde 2004.  #8: World AIDS Day 2004. - # 9: Pride 2005. - # 10: Pride 2005: Advocacy & Human Rights in the Caribbean. - # 11: World AIDS Day 2005: Keeping the Promise. - # 12: What's Your Position: Caribbean Men & HIV. - # 13: Pride 2006. - # 14: World AIDS Day 2006. - # 15: Health & Social issues for the Men who have Sex with Men Communities in the Caribbean. - # 16: Pride 2007. - # 17: World AIDS Day 2007. - # 18: Carnival 2008. - # 19: Pride 2008 - United by Pride = Bound by Equity.  - # 20: Treatment and Care 2008. - # 21: Prevention 2009: Steps Toward Personal Change.  - # 22: Human Rights & Advocacy: Chances to Change, 2009.

MSMGF News Articles & Documents Resources. By Region & Country:  - Caribbean: - Bahamas

Blabbeando Blog: Latin American GLBTQ News / Commentaries: 2005 to Present.

 

BERMUDA (Wikipedia):Gays are 'confronted by hate' in Bermuda: Rally organizer laments island's intolerance (2011, Alternate Link): .“For some of my friends, who more openly break gender rules in terms of their personal styles or mannerisms, the consequences of being gay in Bermuda have been severe.” She said she has had male friends beaten up and a female friend lose a job for failing to dress in a feminine way. “It is obvious that we live in a society where we are not wanted. “For many of us, living or attending school abroad is out first experience of complete acceptance and returning home isn’t returning home at all. “It’s a place where we are confronted by hate.” - In Bermuda, ‘scores’ rally for LGB rights (2011, Alternate Link)... Video: Rally Against Discrimination... Video interview with Assan: ‘Homophobia Last Acceptable Discrimination’. - Equal human rights lacking in Bermuda (2011). - Putting gay rights back on agenda (2011).

London Gay Pride protest over discrimination in Bermuda (2011): The Bermuda delegation kept that in mind as they carried a large banner proclaiming they were LGTB refugees behind Ms Barrington. Members of the public enquired about the sign and were told discrimination based on sexual orientation is still legal in Bermuda. This means, among other things, that someone can be fired or evicted solely because they are not straight. “This is the third year we have taken part in the parade,” Bermudian organiser Adam Cooper said. “It started because a group of us felt frustrated about the situation in Bermuda. We don’t have rights in Bermuda and we wanted a way to express it, and bring some attention to the situation.”.

Gay cruise group not put off by preacher’s words (2011): A gay travel company due to arrive here today with a cruise ship full of visitors has pledged not to be put off Bermuda by the homophobic comments of preacher Scott Smith. The Celebrity vessel Summit is expected at Dockyard first thing this morning with 50 passengers on a vacation organised by New-York based Pied Piper Travel. The visit comes just days after Mr Smith delivered an anti-gay rant at a weekend event to promote peace and unite people against violence. The community activist later apologised for going too far but said he remained steadfast in his belief that “homosexuality is an abomination”...  - Show of support for gay cruise visitors (2011): Dozens of gay supporters gathered at Latin’s Rumbar to party the night away with “fabulous” singing and dancing from the ‘Queen of Bermuda’ Sybil Barrington. In the spirit of celebrating diversity, locals and visitors of all ages enjoyed the event in honour of gay cruise ship visitors onboard the Celebrity Summit and Norwegian Gem. There were no protesters outside the bash; which came days after preacher Scott Smith delivered an anti-gay rant at a weekend event to promote peace and unite people against violence. The community activist later apologised for going overboard, but said he remained firm in his belief that “homosexuality is an abomination”...

Sybil Barrington’s Bermuda Day Appearance (2011): Female impersonator Mark Anderson appeared in yesterday’s Bermuda Day parade, joining the dozens of floats, dance groups and performers. Mr. Anderson was also hoping to raise public awareness of today’s [May 25] City Hall rally aimed at encouraging Government to include sexual orientation in Bermuda’s Human Rights Act. The entertainer — who styles himself as Sybil Barrington, The Queen of Bermuda– has been participating in the Bermuda Day parade since 2005. He was abruptly dropped from the official list of parade participants in 2006 after complaints were lodged with Government claiming Mr. Anderson’s drag routine did not reflect Bermuda’s heritage. He took part in the event anyway and has since become a Bermuda Day parade fixture... - `Pride Of The Ocean` Cruise To Bermuda (2010): The second annual Pride of the Ocean Film Festival Cruise sails on the Norwegian Dawn luxury liner from Boston to Bermuda May 27 to June 3, 2011.  Scagliotti and colleagues will select eight filmmakers for the cruise based on their submitted film and achievements. Cabin and board expenses will be covered plus limited travel scholarships. During this seven-day event, individuals will take part in the CineSlam Film Slam Seminar, as well as industry seminars through Q-Me-Con. Pride of the Ocean also features dance parties and networking events with established members of the LGBT film community.

Homosexuality debate needs to evolve - Senator (2011): Government Senator Cromwell Shakir yesterday called for Bermudians to elevate the level of debate on homosexuality saying he's against all forms of discrimination. The Progressive Labour Party member spoke out after anti-homophobia campaigner Krys Assan was publicly ridiculed at a candlelit vigil for victims of gang violence at the weekend... - Government senator calls on Bermudians to elevate the level of debate on homosexuality (2011). - Why the hatred? (2011): Government senator Cromwell Shakir is absolutely right to call for the current debate on discrimination against gays to be elevated. Although “debate” is perhaps not the word to describe the hysterical outpouring of ignorance and hatred that has followed the recent Home Is Where The Hatred rally at City Hall. The bizarre and hateful comments of preacher Scott Smith about rally leader Krystl Assan and how gays would bring “damnation” to Bermuda have been well documented. What is equally disturbing to me though are the online comments and posts either supporting Mr Smith or attacking him. Many of us are guilty in the Facebook age of firing off an angry, ill-considered post rather than having a civilised discussion about an issue. I’m certainly not advocating a curtailing of free speech but I do think editors and online moderators need to think more about what letters and comments they publish. If such inflammatory comments were attacking Jews, Muslims or blacks, in most western democracies they would face prosecution as an incitement to hatred. Yet in Bermuda we allow such attacks on gays – and for that matter, expatriate workers – even though The Royal Gazette clearly states that Letters To The Editor written under a pen name should not contain personal attacks. Freedom of speech, as I’ve said before on this blog, comes with responsibility...

Gay rights in Bermuda (2009): Neil J Carr tells us why times need to change in Bermuda. And your chance to add your voice to the Commonwealth Conversation! ... Homosexuality was only made legal in Bermuda in 1994. There is no official recognition of same sex unions, no same sex marriage, and no anti discrimination laws (based on sexual orientation). Bermuda hit the headlines in 2007 when a cruise for gay families hosted by the lesbian actress and comedian Rosie O'Donnell cancelled plans to visit Bermuda after hostility from a section of churches on the Island... "I landed in Bermuda in August 2003 as an “expat” teacher from the U.K... I was an “out” gay man in my own country (U.K.) but a gut instinct told me that I’d better be careful in this beautiful tropical island paradise. I am very self aware and I trust my intuition, which turned out to be correct. During the two years that I stayed in Bermuda I have never felt as oppressed as a gay man as I did there... Unfortunately Bermuda is still living in the past and its government cannot bring itself to legislate for GLBT rights. As usual the politicians (of Bermuda), while agreeing behind closed doors that they need to drag Bermudians kicking and screaming into the 21st century, are frightened of legislating to protect the rights of GLBT people... - Bermuda: We Want Your Gay Tourist Dollars, But Not Your Disgusting Weddings (2010). - Bermuda: Gay Cruises OK, Marriage Not So Much (2010).

A Letter From Bermuda (2009): Bermuda has a fairly large gay and lesbian population, yet it really is not very apparent.  It tends to be kept quiet, with many people not revealing themselves to the general public, family and friends, myself included.  As a whole, Bermudians would be okay and fairly respectful of the no-hetero portions of society, but it is the general views and attitudes or certain groups of the community that keep things the way it is... As of yet, the government hasn't done any studies or discussions with members of the gay and lesbian community to gather input from our views and thought, to my knowledge at least.  Government still hasn't amended the human rights act to completely protect gays and lesbians from discrimination, even when an amendment was proposed by a member of their own party.  Not to say it will never happen, but it is going to be a long process. Overall, I would say in the future, Bermuda could be a popular destination of gay and lesbian travelers, but it likely will not happen soon...

Bermuda & Homosexuality (2009): There is an interesting discussion going on over at the BIAW forum concerning the issue of including sexual orientation under the human rights act. While this issue, of which the group Two Words & A Comma are helping to raise awareness of, is not about giving homosexuality any special rights, or even necessarily about homosexuality itself, it is widely regarded as being about the issue of homosexuality and the discrimination faced by homosexuals in Bermuda. This issue is quite a divisive one, as it is throughout the greater Caribbean region... Personally I am of the belief that it is primarily biological, with nurture having only a slight modifying effect. Again though, to me it is irrelevant whether or not it is a choice or a biological condition. The HR Act even as it is prevents discrimination on the basis of the biological conditions of race and sex (in the sense of male/female) as well as choice, such as political and religious beliefs. So the question has no bearing to me about whether or not sexual orientation should be included under the HR Act. At most I can see that some people may be concerned about their children being turned into homosexuals, should it be found to be a choice. Again, this has about the same level of concern to me as whether or not my children would be converted to this or that political or religious convention, and as far as I am concerned should it be a choice (which I do not think is the case) of the individual. I have always found the idea that it is a choice, especially in a strongly homophobic country like Bermuda, quite a ridiculous notion though. While I may choose the unpopular political and religious views of socialism and atheism in Bermuda, I am alot less likely to suffer negative consequences than someone choosing to be ‘gay’ would in Bermuda....

Seven Years for Machete Attack Against Gay Bermuda Man (2008): A Bermuda judge sentences a gay-baiting thug to seven years in prison for hacking and slashing the face of a gay man with a machete ... and criticizes the island government for not passing gay rights legislation. Sentencing 25-year-old Rashad Cooper to the stiff term, Judge Carlisle Greaves warns similar hate crimes will not be tolerated in Bermuda. The Royal Gazette quotes the judge: "By its sentence the court should, I think, send a strong message to the accused and other like-minded individuals that behaviour such as his, motivated such as his, shall not be tolerated in this modern, civilised, enlightened and fair-minded society."

O'Donnell's gay cruise to cancel Bermuda stop (2007): A summer cruise for gay and lesbian families organized by Rosie O'Donnell has cut Bermuda from its planned itinerary because of possible protests by church groups in the British island territory. - Rosie's gay cruise is backed by Bermuda's leader (2007): The Premier of Bermuda has dismissed requests for Rose O'Donnell's gay and lesbian family cruise to be cancelled. - Bermuda stresses its gay-friendly credentials (2007): The Premier of Bermuda has said gay people are welcome on the island after a cruise for gay families cancelled plans to visit later this year. The cruise, hosted by lesbian comedian Rosie O'Donnell, was the focus of faith-based protests when it visited the Bahamas in 2004. Bermudan church groups had promised action against the visiting gay families. - Gay cruise controversy puts Bermuda in international spotlight (2007: The cancellation of the Rosie O’Donnell cruise to Bermuda has become the hot topic on gay websites around the world. Homosexuals from the US to Australia are discussing the issue as an example of homophobia in the 21st century. - Some people in Bermuda love gays (2007): A delightful woman called Michele Lawrence has contacted PinkNews.co.uk with pictures of a mini-demonstration she and her daugher arranged in support of gay tourists visiting her home of Bermuda.

Governor of Bermuda Pushes for Gay Rights (2006): Bermuda's colonial Governor, Sir John Vereker, has quietly attempted to sway opponents in Parliament of legislation to protect the rights gays. In May lawmakers defeated overwhelmingly a bill that would have included gays and lesbians in the colony's human rights law. - Bermuda's Governor Quietly Intervenes In Gay Rights Dispute (2006): Bermuda's colonial Governor, Sir John Vereker, has quietly attempted to sway opponents in Parliament of legislation to protect the rights gays. In May lawmakers defeated overwhelmingly a bill that would have included gays and lesbians in the colony's human rights law. - Hundreds Protest Rejection Of Bermuda Gay Rights Bill (2006): Hundreds of people have demonstrated on the grounds of Bermuda's House of Assembly, protesting against a wall of silence by legislators on a bill that would have added to sexuality to the Human Rights Act. The bill was introduced by MP Renee Webb and sent to committee where Webb made an impassioned 90 speech. "We in Bermuda need to ensure that we join the democratic countries of the world and fight for freedom for all of its people," she told committee members. "I believe that Bermuda needs to move towards becoming a more compassionate society and not allow discrimination under the guise of any particular belief to take place." When it came up for debate MPs without saying a word voted it down..

Bermuda lawmakers to reintroduce gay rights bill (2006): A ruling party lawmaker in Bermuda said she will try again to pass a gay rights bill, a month after a similar measure failed in the British territory's Parliament. - Two words and a comma would enshrine gay rights (2007, Alternate Link): Human rights activists in Bermuda have launched a campaign to add sexual orientation as a protected grounds of discrimination under the country’s Human Rights Act. They want to insert an amendment to the Act, which advocates say amounts to not much more than two words and a comma. - Bermuda stresses its gay-friendly credentials (2007): The Premier of Bermuda has said gay people are welcome on the island after a cruise for gay families cancelled plans to visit later this year. - Gay rights back on the agenda (2008): The thorny issue of gay rights is back on the table after a government department recommended gay people be given full protection from discrimination. Government's Human Affairs Department has recommended that the 1981 Human Rights Act be amended to offer equal rights to homosexuals. It is one of a slew of recommended changes that will give protection from discrimination on three brand-new grounds as well as enhancing protections that already exist. Recommendations are for the act to be amended to include age, sexual orientation and nationality as unlawful grounds of discrimination.

Bermuda Flooded With Anti-Gay Posters (2002): Work crews spent the better part of a day removing hate posters targeting gays and lesbians from lampposts throughout the Bermuda capital.. -  Our man in Bermuda (2000, Alternate Link): During his service in Bermuda, Farmer used discretion in determining whether to take his partner to events. "Generally I was open, and Craig was with me at a lot of functions, but there were occasions [at which] I was on official business, so I would go with myself or with a female friend so as not to create an awkward situation for my host country," Farmer says. "You have to remember that you are representing your country, and that comes before all else."

Island’s ‘in dire need of a gay and lesbian centre’ (2006, Alternate Link, Must Scroll): Professional drag queen Mark Anderson this week gave homophobic Bermudians a dressing down for being intolerant and hypocritical about gays. He told the Bermuda Sun that Bermuda is in dire need of a gay and lesbian centre where homosexuals could go for counselling and sex education. He said the need is greatest for teenagers who are struggling with their identity - but often have nowhere to turn. - Should Gays Boycott Bermuda & Jamaica? (2007): Last week on The View, Rosie O’Donnell discussed her decision to cancel the Bermuda stop on her R Family Vacations cruise in July. After weighing threats from 80 churches of United By Faith to protest the gay family cruise, Rosie felt Rosie was not a good fit for the cruise’s “judgment free” atmosphere..

Let Them Wed (2004, Alternate Link): "Following the recent furore about gay marriage in the US, homosexual couples in Bermuda must have been wondering about the chance of ever being able to obtain legal recognition of their relationships here. If so, they were dealt a blow by Family Services Minister Patrice Minors yesterday. Speaking at a press conference on the International Year of the Family, Mrs. Minors said  "It is not my intention during my term as Minister to have [gay unions] introduced legislatively... [If approached by members of the community to consider it] it wouldn't receive an endorsement from me. I do not believe [a family with two gay heads of house] to be representative of a family based on moral values." Such an attitude is sad, but not surprising. Bermuda is arguably more homophobic than the US, largely a result of the strong fundamentalist Christian beliefs held by many Bermudians. Homosexuality between males was only legalised here in 1994; previously the penalty for consensual homosexual sex between males over the age of 21 was up to ten years imprisonment..."

What have you accomplished to date? (Lesbian & Gay Bermuda, August 2002, PDF Download): "In our first year of being we have taken steps toward protection for Gay persons under the Human Rights Act on the basis of ‘Sexual Orientation’, having met with the Minister as well as the Commission. We have been involved with persons looking to provide sensitivity training for educators, especially when dealing with youth coming to terms with their sexuality. We also made possible the creation and distribution of this newsletter..."

Youth! / Growing Up Gay in Bermuda. (Lesbian & Gay Bermuda, September 2002, PDF Download): "The trials and tribulations of youth coming to terms with their homosexuality in Bermuda, is something rarely discussed, even in the gay/lesbian community. They are left to flounder and seek their way without any constructive guidance, and we are not only talking in a sexual manner. Simply accepting ones sexuality in light of the rampant homophobia on this island is a challenge, unless you have supportive family and friends life can be miserable... We hear that in our schools, students can find a sympathetic ear who will discuss the pros and cons of teenage sex, but find no direction when it comes to dealing with gay/lesbian orientation, other than steering them toward a therapist or religious leader for conversion. Also we hear that they cannot even find information in our school libraries as books dealing with homosexuality are not stocked and ‘gay/lesbian’ web sites, many of which provide valuable information on sexual orientation, are blocked or severely limited on school computers... Not being able  to discuss these feelings with my family or friends can turn you into a stranger as you learn quickly to evade questions as to why you don’t have a girlfriend, as well as evade their advances. This makes you a target for ridicule by other boys as they notice your lack of interest in girls and the name calling starts. I was called ‘sissy’ and ‘faggot’ more times than I care to remember and this was without their real knowledge of my orientation which becomes a real downer. My grades in school began to suffer as a result and I developed more of an ‘attitude’ and became ‘difficult’, as termed by my parents who I unfortunately still felt I could not confide in either. Many tears were shed over not being allowed to be myself, yet watching objects of my desire bouncing through our youth without stress..."

Diversity Institute Workshops: Supporting Gay Students (Word Download N/A): :"To promote a greater understanding among educators of the concerns of gay students (or students who might be gay) so that they can equally benefit, along with the other students, in the educational process in a safe and respectful environment. " - A Photo History of the Issues in Bermuda.

Dear Danny (1999): "I would like to get to know more about homosexuality. I have always wondered about the true facts about being homosexual. I would just like to say that your website is very informative and I am trying my best to be able to understand that being gay is a way of life. They don't really support gay rights here in Bermuda..."

How gay panic gripped 1960s Royal Navy (2002): "The Royal Navy was so gripped by a security panic over gay servicemen in the late 1960s, admirals believed at least half of the entire fleet had "sinned homosexually". Documents released by the Public Record office reveal commanders buried a series of scandals including homosexual affairs on an aircraft carrier, transsexual prostitutes in the Far East and hundreds of men using a "male brothel" in Bermuda..."

'Half Gay' Fleet Fuelled Admirals' Fear of Blackmail and Treachery: (2002, Alternate Link) "The problem was highlighted in 1969 when scores of sexually explicit photographs of British sailors were found in a flat in Bermuda. More than 400 sailors had been involved in "gross indecency" there, and the names of the men and their ships were written on the pictures. At the same time, more and more drunken sailors were being lured into having sex with catamites, men masquerading as beautiful women, in Singapore..."

Resource Links: - The Gully. - Search GayToday.com Archives. - Rainbow Recorder (To 2003): Bermuda's ONLY newsletter geared to the Gay/Lesbian community.

Global Gayz: Caribbean: Bermuda. Bermuda News Reports from 2006 to the Present. - ILGA: Bermuda- LGBT rights in Bermuda- Sodomy Laws: Bermuda. - The International Encyclopedia of Sexuality:  Bermuda Not Included.

FRee Forum Online (Numerous Articles): No. 1 choice in the fight against AIDS, for men who have sex with men (MSM) and Gay communities in the Caribbean (To 2009). - FRee Forum Issues: #1: Pride 2002. - # 2: World AIDS Day, 2002. - #3: Carnival 2003. - #4: Pride 2003. - #5: World AIDS Day 2003. # 6: Carnival 2004.  - #7: Prde 2004.  #8: World AIDS Day 2004. - # 9: Pride 2005. - # 10: Pride 2005: Advocacy & Human Rights in the Caribbean. - # 11: World AIDS Day 2005: Keeping the Promise. - # 12: What's Your Position: Caribbean Men & HIV. - # 13: Pride 2006. - # 14: World AIDS Day 2006. - # 15: Health & Social issues for the Men who have Sex with Men Communities in the Caribbean. - # 16: Pride 2007. - # 17: World AIDS Day 2007. - # 18: Carnival 2008. - # 19: Pride 2008 - United by Pride = Bound by Equity.  - # 20: Treatment and Care 2008. - # 21: Prevention 2009: Steps Toward Personal Change.  - # 22: Human Rights & Advocacy: Chances to Change, 2009.

MSMGF News Articles & Documents Resources. By Region & Country:  - Caribbean: - Bermuda

Blabbeando Blog: Latin American GLBTQ News / Commentaries: 2005 to Present.


To "The SEARCH Section" For The Best Search Engines & Information Directories, The Searchable Sites to Locate Papers & Abstracts... and The Sites - Some Searchable - Where "Free Papers" Are Available!
 

BARBADOS (Wikipedia): - The thorny issue of homosexuality (2011): The outcome of both articles revealed that the Senator Reverend Dr. David Durant of Restoration Ministries and Reverend Vincent Wood of Emmanuel Baptist Church would appear to be blatantly persecuting gays’ lifestyle in Barbados.... In Barbados homosexuality is illegal and penalty is a life sentence. Living in Barbados I confronted the issue of “bullas” and “wickers” in a variety of traditions. I had this conception that the subject existed but, on the contrary, it seemed consequently far away. What is it regarding the concern of homosexuality which for all time appears to coerce trepidation, and why would it express irrationality into the activities of Barbadians across from corner to corner of the social spectrum? I think this is because of the phobia which Barbadians show towards homosexuals... Decisively, there is no recognition of same-sex unions; no same sex marriages; no same sex adoptions; gays not allowed to serve openly in the military; there are no anti-discriminations laws for gays; and there are no anti-discrimination laws concerning gender identity/expression in Barbados. The Island has a very conservative viewpoint as I know personally, and the outlook to homosexuality and homophobic scrutiny are regrettably every day. - Barbados' Family Minister Says Too Much Sex and Homosexuality On TV (2011): He called on the children in attendance to take a stand and refuse to watch unwholesome television programmes, commenting that there is “absolutely nothing wrong in saying ‘no’ to homosexuality and promiscuity”. 

Gay backlash worry (2011, Alternate Link): Barbados is on the list of countries whose nationals are seeking asylum in the United States, claiming they are being persecuted because of their sexual orientation. And while Barbados’ Ambassador to the United States, John Beale, said the State Department had not raised the issue with him officially, he is concerned about it because of the damage which the claims can cause to the country’s image... Jamaica, Trinidad and Tobago, Guyana, St Vincent and the Grenadines, St Kitts and Nevis, Grenada, Dominica, the Bahamas and St Lucia are among the countries whose nationals consider the atmosphere at home so hostile to lesbians, gays, bisexuals and trans-gender (LGBT) people that they are seeking asylum in the United States.... “The atmosphere in many English-speaking Caribbean nations is absolutely oppressive,” said Victoria Neilson, legal director of Washington-based gay rights organization Immigration Equality. “Especially in the case of Jamaica, the hatred of gay people is beyond comprehension to me.”... - Why Do Gay people say "Gay is the new Black"? (2011).

Recent outburst of anti-gay letters in the Barbadian press (2011): I have noticed in the Barbadian newspapers such as The Barbados Advocate and The Nation there has been an outburst of anti-gay letters for the past few months. Some of which have been offensive to the gay community in Barbados, such as warning gays that their lifestyle is a sin, they should be hung, they should be saved through Jesus, and because of their lifestyle they will end up in hell and we know that penalty for homosexuality is life imprison in Barbados. Other comments that have appeared in a very recent letter in The Nation newspaper, it said that gays, lesbians, transsexuals, transvestites and a transgender are taking over the society and are infringing upon the lifestyles of heterosexuals in Barbados and across the world. - Homosexuality in Barbados (2009): Homosexuality in Barbados is at an all time high and it is a total embarrassment for a country which pride itself with a Church on almost every street corner. This act has been occurring in Barbados for as long as I can remember, but tended to be concealed, but this has changed recently, and to frightening figures. In times pass, one would only be told of men who were involved in the act, but the times have changed and more and more women are involved in lesbianism. Women are now looking, walking and talking with the mannerisms and antics of men and vice versa..

Gay Canadian’s protests Diplomatic visit from Barbados visit to his town – Cites Intolerance for Homosexuality as grounds for denying them courtesy, how does this lead way for discourse? (2011, Video): BAJAN Reporte Replies {I am aware there is another item concerning this issue, but since it is not an officially recognised fora, I tried answering my own way at youtube but the Comments box would not publish, so I chose this alternative} – Mr Christopher, you should be looking at this visit not as a moment to coordinate a protest but as a means of invoking dialogue for detente. Barbados in theory is very strict on a legal basis regarding sodomy and not necessarily the deed or desire of homosexuality itself, but when Bajans are confronted with genuine gay partners they accept them and have an almost “Don’t Ask, Don’t Tell“ attitude which is to say if there are two men or women who want to live such a lifestyle then that is their business, but don’t convince {us} to live that way too. If you had really done your research you’d learn that Barbados is soft on homophobia and related laws, to the point where we’re considered the Gay capital of the Caribbean? This in itself is an over-generalisation but we fall somewhere in the middle… So when the delegation arrives, greet them and encourage them to hear you out and why you believe your POV is significant!...

Gay scam? (2011): At least nine people, mostly gays, have applied for refugee status in Canada, claiming harassment and abuse in Barbados; and the matter is being investigated by the Barbados Consulate in Toronto, as well as the Canadian government’s Immigration and Refugee Board (IRB)... When contacted, Grazette and at least two known homosexual youths said they had first-hand knowledge of several young gay men currently trying to get into Canada as refugees. So too did head of the United Gays and Lesbians Against AIDS Barbados (UGLAAB), Darcy Dear. “I have a gay friend, a Canadian professor, who visited Barbados recently and mentioned it to me,” Dear told the SUNDAY SUN. “The organization [UGLAAB] intends to look at it in the very near future . . .  because this could affect Barbados’ standing in the international community, as well as its relationship with Canada, and can affect us as the only organization that represents gays and lesbians in Barbados.” Dear, who has previously complained about police not responding seriously to crimes against gays, said that “although things may happen to gays here, including me, I will not be party to anything that seeks to destroy Barbados”...

Rihanna Relaxes With Another Lesbian In Barbados (2011): All the famous women in Kabbalah are bisexual.. - Tell Rihanna: Promote and Advocate LGBT Rights in Barbados and Caribbean region! (Petition) .- Gay beauty contestant drops dead in Barbados (2011). - Hemish Gervis interviews Vendetta St. Mykael who is the representative for Barbados at the 2010 Gay Caribbean USA Pageant (2010, YouTube).

Homosexuality debate rages in Barbados (2010, Alternate Link): The survey used indicators to gauge attitudes and was informed by an earlier survey (2003) which indicated that there was little if any support for the decriminalisation of homosexual acts; however the 2004 survey demonstrated that this single question only told part of the story of Barbadian attitudes. The 2004 investigation demonstrates that “negative” attitudes toward homosexuals are prevalent within a relatively small section of the Barbadian population, while the vast majority of Barbadians are either tolerant or accepting of homosexuals... This comparison did NOT establish any statistically verifiable relationship, but it does demonstrate that Barbadians are considerably more opposed to the decriminalisation of homosexual acts than any of the other major issues engaged in the survey. - Homosexuality - the debate (2010): A fresh effort is on to document the views of Barbadians on the issue of homosexuality and its legality. Political scientist and pollster Peter Wickham noted the importance of the data to Barbados while bringing Barbados up-to-date on a recent presentation of his research on the subject at an Organisation of American States human rights forum in Guyana. Wickham, head of the research organisation CADRES, explained that the presentation was based on data collected more than five years ago, and noted that he was now engaged in an effort to acquire sponsorship to poll Barbadians on the subject. New research should also assist organisations in the fight against HIV/AIDS plan their programmes while armed with the latest information on the thinking of Barbadians, particularly if that thinking is based on myths, rather than reality..

Barbados pimp starts Caribbean Gay social media website – sets gay cause back 50 years (2010): The Nation Newspaper buys into Human Rights discussions hosted by a pimp... Let’s make one thing clear before we start: no matter our differing views on many topics, each of the staff at Barbados Free Press loathes Charles Lewis – the admitted pimp and self-proclaimed “sex industry expert” usually seen being interviewed by the Barbados news media on a slow day. In today’s Nation, Lewis announces he’s all for gays. He doesn’t realise that like most Barbadians, most gays probably view pimps the same as we do. (The Nation: Gay network online). You can get an understanding of our feelings by reading our last article on Mr. Lewis: Barbados Pimp pushes “sustainable” development of sex tourism. All he needs is to recruit your children…...

The Homosexual Debate Continues to Simmer In Barbados (2009): ... The members of the BU family who have been with us from our early days know the interest we have shown in homosexuality (do a search of BU using ‘homosexuality’ keyword). It is one of the pillar issues we feature from time to time even if of late it has not featured on the BU rotation with the same early frequency. Interestingly the subject of homosexuality is one which a high level of hypocrisy can be levelled in Barbados. Whether we like the Jamaican approach Prime Minister Bruce Golding has echoed the position of most Jamaicans, zero tolerance to batty men in his cabinet because he feels it does not reflect the public position. Jamaicans appear to wear the label of homophobic like a boy scout would wear a badge of honour.In Barbados we have a long way to go regarding how as a country we want to deal with the issue of homosexuality... - Letter from Trinidad 2: Barbados (2009): Barbados Minister for Family, Youth and Sports recently announced that gays, lesbians, and transgenders will be protected under legislation against domestic violence. Writing from Port of Spain, the capital of Trinidad and Tobago where the Commonwealth People's Forum was recently held, Alex Au meets with Elizabeth, a MTF transgender from Barbados and finds out more about her country....

Words hurt: is it time for hate speech legislation in Barbados? (2009): Hate speech against homosexuals in Barbados is particularly rife and equally vehement. Though, for the moment, public response in Barbados excludes the mass village stonings that obtain in Jamaica, it appears that for some insecure men, the labeling and taunting of suspected homosexuals is part and parcel of being male. This ignorance fuels the speech that fuels the ignorance… and the cycle goes on, ad nauseum. Going on the same definition of masculinity that has seen some idiots fracturing their penises in reverence to deejays’ predilection for rough sex, any detours from the hyper-masculine, brutish, rude boy image is viewed as dirty, effeminate, gay. It deserves no mention that ‘downlow’, masculine men are key practitioners of homophobia and hate speech, since one clearly cannot be gay if he verbally assaults homosexuals. The cycle continues...

"Ex-Gay" Donnie McClurkin in Barbados, Compares Gays to "Drug Dealers and Gang Members" (2008): More nonsense from the infamously "ex-gay"—or perhaps merely re-closeted? - Grammy award winning gospel singer and evangelist  Donnie McClurkin. The controversial entertainer, who dominated headlines in the early primary cycle by campaigning for Barack Obama, exports his hate speech to  Barbados and ramps up the anti-gay message. McClurkin repeats his familiar tale of sexual abuse that allegedly led to two decades in the gay "lifestyle" and channels fellow gospel gay-bashers Mary Mary to compare gays to drug dealers and prostitutes. This reported last week in The Nation, Barbados' largest newspaper:.. McClurkin's revisionist ex-gay and anti-gay messaging is well-received by the black religious community in the States. Barbados is fertile ground to plant more seeds of hate. The island is heavily fundamentalist. For example, authorities promoted conjugal visits over condoms at the new prison because condoms were seen as carrying the "stigma of homosexuality" and the likelihood of conjugals was seen as decreasing sex behind bars. Seriously....

Homosexuality and Barbadians - The Fear Of An Orderly Society (2007): Some comments to BU recently have motivated me to blog on the issue of homosexuality in the context of Barbados. Many of us grew-up in a village and would have had to confront the issue of “bullas” and “wickers” in various ways. We all had this amorphous understanding that the issue existed but it seemed so far away. What is it about the issue of homosexuality which always seems to drive fear and some would say irrationality into the behaviour of Barbadians right across the social spectrum? Simply put I think that the phobia which black Barbadians show towards homosexuals may have its roots in our tumultuous past... - Homosexuality: A topic of inexplicable fear (2007): Many prejudices exist in our lives and in the Caribbean we have many taboos and prejudices. Some of the region's harshest wrath is reserved for homosexuality. Without much discussion I will say that the prejudice and vehement opposition is about male homosexuality. The term of endearment most commonly used in the Caribbean for male homosexual is "sissy". Parents warn their sons "You don't want them to think you are a sissy." Nothing positive in those notions. I have hardly ever heard mention of issues to do with lesbians, and disparaging terms such as "dike" or "butch" don't feature much in Caribbean dialogue. A woman may occasionally be accused of being "too much of a man" but that is usually because she has followed male ways to get herself success at work. Ironically, it's often taken for granted that a woman will "boss" her man or men (sons cant escape for ever) around. We live in societies where women often rule the roost. I am not going from there to say that a certain reaction by men to this "bossiness" is in sexual preference, though some have argued this point...

Tyrannical Homosexual Societies Hide Behind Barbados Prison Walls? (2007, Related Infomration): Payne, fighting for his right to remain heterosexual accused the prison administration of allowing the homosexuals to completely take over the Barbados prison system. The prisoner, who confessed to a major dislike for the sexual practice claims that heterosexual prison guards had to lock themselves in cages to prevent homosexuals from swarming all over them. To make matters worse, said Payne, the homosexuals were allied with several of the senior prison officials. Payne said homosexuality was a big problem at the Station Hill, St. Michael penal institution and that when he was sentenced there for the first time in 1999 he quickly learned that such individuals ran the jail. He told the Commission he didn't know if this referred to inmates alone or prison officers as well. - Glendairy 'the best' (Must Schroll(: "It was a very good prison until they burnt it down. It was mild and tolerant. We had a lovely, sweet little jail. Only a small minority was involved in sexual (homosexual) activity, but a lot of it was going on in the jail," he said. But Donaldson said as the only white man in prison at that time, he was not touched by the homosexuals, yet he did the most menial job which was also the best paid.. - Inmate: Glendairy run by homosexual prisoners N/A. - Barbados Prison Deaths: Now back in his homeland, Donaldson reveals all about what he witnessed during his term behind bars in Barbados including drug dealing, homosexuality, the burning of Glendairy and the conditions at the temporary prison at Harrison Point. - Burning was an 'opportunity' (2007): Acting Superintendent of Prisons, Lieutenant-Colonel John Nurse, has dismissed the idea of the torching of Glendairy Prisons two years ago being the result of a detailed plot. And he doesn't believe homosexuality played any part in it.

Shadow report on lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender rights in Barbados (2007, Word Download, Word Download):  coordinated by Global Rights and the International Human Rights Advocacy Seminar at the University of Virginia School of Law... Barbados ratified the ICCPR on March 23, 1976 and will present their regular report to the UN Committee that monitors the ICCPR on March 21, 2007. The University of Virginia Human Rights Advocacy Seminar is honored to have the opportunity to participate in the production of this shadow report on the status of lesbian, gay, bi-sexual, transgender, and intersex (LGBTI) individuals in Barbados.  Working in cooperation with Global Rights and their contacts in Barbados, we gathered information in this report and now present it as a starting point for advocacy of greater protection and promotion of the rights of LGBTI persons in Barbados... The buggery laws of Barbados effectively criminalize consensual homosexual relations, providing for the possibility of life imprisonment.  Beyond establishing a legal ground for the deprivation of life, liberty, health and opportunity, these laws preserve ingrained stereotypes about LGBTI individuals and, in effect, serve to strengthen social stigmas against them.  Ultimately, these laws are in conflict with the constitutional prohibition against discrimination in Barbados, as well as Articles 2(1) and 26 of the ICCPR... - Barbados: Illegal Activity: With respect to homosexuality, it’s a big issue in Barbados . Although it is said that Barbados has one of the largest gay populations in the Caribbean , the practice is still not legal. Kissing and sexual intercourse by two males or two females is an offense punishable by law.. .

Barbados: Gay 'Relief' (2007):  NO TO LEGALISING prostitution; yes to decriminalising homosexuality. That seems to be the emerging position of the Anglican Church in Barbados and the rest of the Caribbean. Archbishop Drexel Gomez of the West Indies Province and a former bishop of Barbados, has rejected any idea of the church supporting an attempt to legalise prostitution in various islands, Barbados included, but said he could back the decriminalising of homosexuality among consenting adults, purely on human rights grounds...

Church to present Barbados government with alternative plan to combat HIV/AIDS (2005): The battle between Barbadians who want to see homosexuality and prostitution legalized and those taking a firm stance against the move is continuing with the church now saying it's willing to prepare and present alternative proposals to government for use in the fight against HIV/AIDS... "As a church we must confess that we have caused hurt to lesbians and gays and demonstrated homophobic behaviour," he said. "We must demonstrate love. We need to recognise the church does not only speak against homosexuality and prostitution. We speak against adultery and common law unions." - Project PROBE Ministries and Exodus Global Alliance present "Sex, Sexuality and Homosexuality: Engaging the Truth" N/A (2006 Barbados Conference, Alternate Link): As the world promotes more sexual freedom, increasing numbers of children, teens and adults in every part of the world are struggling with and being hurt by homosexuality, prostitution, sexual abuse, gender changes, pornography, sex before marriage and sex outside of marriage. Do you or your church know how bad the problem of sexual brokenness is?

Homosexuality and the Barbadian Society (2004): From the days of Queen Victoria, Barbados, like other British colonies viewed homosexuality as possible among men only and unimaginable among women. As a result, homosexuality remains taboo and anal sex continues to be outlawed. In recent months, there has been much talk of the inclusion of gay rights within the amendments to the constitution of Barbados. The majority of the members of the Constituion Review Committee disagrees with this position, but a dissenting view was offered by one committee member.. - Barbados debates decriminalizing homosexuality, prostitution (2003): However, many disagreed that any attempt to decriminalize would help reduce the scourge of HIV/AIDS. A 56-year-old male who listed his religion as Pentecostal, said if homosexuality and prostitution were legal, there would be no greater control of HIV/AIDS. “In fact the reverse will occur,” he said. People were also vocal on the Scriptures in the Bible, pointing to the example of Sodom and Gomorrah. “If we do this we will be going against God’s Word. It’s not clean and it’s not natural,” said one Christian in her 40s. One 25-year-old Pentecostal said Barbados professes to be a Christian society, so it should base its values on the Bible and not even consider decriminalization. Respondents also believed that decriminalization of these two laws would result in a devaluation of morals and would spell disaster for future generations. 

Homosexuality serves no useful purpose (2003): We do not need the psuedo-science of sociologists, psychiatrists or psychologists to tell us that homosexuality is wrong; they masquerade ideology as science. The “Bible” condemns homosexuality in the strongest terms and that is enough for us. Ken Scott, God did not make you a homosexual. Your homosexuality is the result of a deprivation neurosis and in trying to deal with that neurosis you have developed an inordinate sexual attachment or attraction to other men just as other people in dealing with a neurosis they develop an inordinate attachment to people, objects or substances. For the homosexual is insecure in his gender identity and in his confusion he attempts to attach himself to someone of the same sex in an effort to attain an identity. It is a disordered love. However, you have chosen to believe the lies of psychologists. . - Time to get rid of bigotry in our country (2003): Finally, I shall say again as a final annotation, what is in actual fact essential is getting rid of the bigotry that manages to survive in Barbados, not promoting prejudice against homosexuals and not allowing discrimination against gay men and women in our island and the Caribbean. De-criminalise homosexuality, allow same sex marriages and gay adoptions, and permit gay rights issues as other countries have done. . - Gay Debate Heads Up (2003): Call-in programmes on local radio in recent days have demonstrated the depth of feeling of Barbadians in relation to any attempt to legalise or decriminalise homosexuality. Two weeks ago a Cabinet minister floated the idea, and enough has now been said to make it clear that such an initiative is fraught with serious social and political implications.. - Barbados Cannot Step Off the World: Objective analysis of the current situation therefore suggests that change will come sooner or later, not directly from our Parliament but through the courts, national or international. To threaten to intimidate these would not be recommended and could lead to imprisonment for contempt of court or worse.

The Fondness And The Fears Of Homosexuality (2001): "Two weeks ago, a picture of a gay wedding on the front page of The Sunday Sun elicited a volley of incensed calls from readers about the morality of carrying such a story. The reaction was neither unprecedented nor unanticipated. So far, every major incident relating to homosexuality in Barbados has received a strongly negative response, as was witnessed when a cruise ship carrying homosexual passengers passed through the region a couple years ago, and during last year?s debates on condoms in prisons... However, at a time when gay rights is becoming a hot topic in many other countries, it now seems a good time to go beyond the superficial in Barbados; to take a look at ourselves, and to come out of our own closet in terms of how we feel and behave towards homosexuals. Reporter Marsha Deyal explores this topic in detail and will share with readers the views of the public, homosexuals, the Church and the legal fraternity. This week, a lesbian tells her story and the people have their say on the issue."

Breaking Her Silence (2001): "But Dorothy, a Barbadian woman in her middling years, is one of those fortunate people. She is comfortable with her choices, and her sexuality. Dorothy is a lesbian, but she does not see her sexual orientation as the be-all and end-all of her existence. “I don’t go around shouting, ‘I’m a lesbian, I’m a lesbian’; with me it’s neither here nor there. I’m just Dorothy,” she said. Dorothy has always lived her life fully and is well-travelled. She has seen and experienced how homosexuality is treated elsewhere, but no matter what, she has not attempted to cover up who and what she is – she has “always been herself”. She is currently in a fulfilling monogamous relationship... “I’m not in the closet – there are people who know about me – but I don’t go around telling everyone I’m a lesbian because I feel it is my personal business. There are a lot of Barbadians, however, who are still in the closet. “A lot of people won’t talk perhaps because they have something to lose and are afraid of being rejected on the whole, but that’s something you build up in your mind... From an early age, Dorothy could afford to be more fearless and open, because unlike many homosexuals, she had support from the people who mattered. Her mother had accepted her as she was. “During my teenage years, I wanted to tell my mother, but I was afraid. For two years I didn’t say a word because I knew this was it: she’s going to kill me. “But it was tearing me up inside, and I had to tell her that I was a lesbian. And she said, ‘Is that all? I thought you were going to tell me you were on drugs or something.’ She said she knew since I was a kid. So now there’s nothing that anybody can tell me that bothers me. “I know how lucky I was. There are people who are afraid to come out, not only here but everywhere, because of how their parents would treat them.” She said, that some are so afraid of what their family and society would say that they would not only try to appear straight, but denounce other homosexuals. This is dangerous to the individual who’s hiding his orientation: If you’re not true to yourself, if you try to suppress your feelings, you suffer. It festers inside you... Many Barbadians are bi-sexual. There are a lot of gay men who get married, and stay hidden in that way. But that doesn’t stop them from having homosexual relationships. It’s hush-hush, but you hear stories of all kinds of sexual encounters...”

To Do Or Taboo? (2001) "The word “homosexual” is loaded: it evokes hatred, revulsion, sometimes even a tinge of fear in some; intolerance in others; apathy in a few; and at times, seeming rare, acceptance. The reactions run the gamut but topple overwhelmingly to the side of the negative when the “homosexual” is considered. But there are no studies to show this locally. Researcher Tara Atluri, author of Working Paper No. 5 – When The Closet Is A Region – published by the Centre for Gender and Development Studies, Cave Hill, in March this year, wrote that “attempting to address homosexuality, homophobia and heterosexism in the Caribbean has been one of my most confounding experiences to date... The talk rises and falls in heated tones to denounce those with a same-sex orientation, throwing loaded words cruelly like stones – “bullers”, “faggots”, “batty-men”, “chi-chi men”, “dykes” and “wickers”. And there is more: the laughter that often rings out as soon as a gay man’s or woman’s back is turned . . . and sometimes to their faces... Perhaps the term should be limited to include the more blatant and prejudicial approach to homosexuals, accompanied by behaviour meant to demean those individuals. As Working Paper #5 states, “Homophobia in its widely politicised context refers to physical violenceand strong verbal, economic, and juridicial abuse against gays.” Working with that definition, and judging by the behaviour discussed above, there is widespread homophobia in Barbados, an interesting phenomenon in a place that is well-known in the rest of the Caribbean for rampant homosexuality. And the homophobia is directed more pointedly at men than women...Dr Winston Crookendale added his views on male homophobics – those who take the prejudice to the extreme. “I’m of the opinion that what is happening with homophobics is that they don’t like what they see in the mirror and project it on others – they’re not comfortable with themselves and their maleness,” he said. “And a man who is not comfortable with his maleness may not only be uncomfortable with homosexuals, but may also be uncomfortable with the opposite sex – using, misusing or abusing women on some level. “A man who is comfortable with his maleness is not homophobic, for he knows who and what he is.” ...“As far as I know we have not done any surveys in Barbados on homosexuality. We need to have some indepth work, some hard data, on sexuality in general and especially on the areas that we have been talking about to understand them more clearly,” Selby said."

Barbados gay community banding together (2000): The gay community in Barbados is banding together to form their own umbrella body. The group, the United Gays and Lesbians Against AIDS Barbados (UGLAAB), has been active for about three months but will be officially launched during a candlelight vigil on World AIDS Day Saturday in Heroes Square. Public relations officer Darcy Dear said yesterday it was being launched in collaboration with the Ministry of Health, the National HIV-AIDS Commission, which are both Government bodies, and the AIDS Society of Barbados, a non-governmental organisation. .

Violations of the Rights of Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender Persons in BARBADOS: A Shadow Report (2007, PDF Download, PDF Download): Despite such a resounding proclamation against discrimination, LGBT individuals in Barbados face an ongoing battle for basic human rights which are denied on the basis of their sexual orientation and gender identity. The central, most egregious violation of LGBT rights in Barbados is the state’s criminalization of same sex sexual activity. The buggery laws, as they are known, typically apply in an arbitrary fashion only to homosexuals, reflecting a wider cultural consensus regarding the immorality of non-heterosexual human relationships. These discriminatory state sanctioned provisions serve as the foci around which other substantive violations of the ICCPR occur in Barbados. Such violations include the arbitrary detention and imprisonment of LGBT persons, degrading treatment and punishment, deprivation of liberty, and capricious withholding of benefits to de facto same-sex couples...

Priest tells of much abuse in gay and lesbian communities (2011, Alternate Link): There is a lot of domestic violence in Barbados' gay and lesbian communities. Priest and psychologist Reverend Marcus Lashley made this charge last Wednesday night during a panel discussion at the Grand Salle, in the Tom Adams Financial Centre, Bridgetown. Lashley said domestic violence was not limited to man/woman relationships. "I can't think of one case where they (partners) are equal in terms of power," he told the meeting, organised by the Caribbean Gynaecological Endoscopic Services (CariGES). "There is always a significant power differential and it is how that power differential is manifested that is of tremendous significance. "There's also a lot of violence because it is a close-knit community. It is, in essence, a minority community and therefore there is tremendous possession, tremendous jealousy, tremendous fear and that motivates a lot of the actions."...

The Civilized Homosexual: Travel Talk and the Project of Gay Identity (2007). Abstract: Gay tourism has been identified as an area in which new intersections of identity, transnationalism, politics and economics are occurring. By marketing travel/holiday choices based on a sexual identity, we are witnessing in some sense a ‘postmodern’ turn in tourism as it responds to a multiplicity of interests and subject positions. But, at the same time, some argue that as an industry and an event, gay tourism is very similar to its mainstream counterpart as it sustains social, political and economic inequalities with very deep roots in the socio-historical firmament we refer to as colonialism. In this article, I explore the situated production of difference/distance primarily through the comments of a member of the gay tourism industry located in Barbados and the perspectives of some local ‘gay-identified’ Barbadian men in order to highlight how the former's constructions are inflected with modernist hierarchies of race, class, nation, and colony and how the latter's views simultaneously reproduce and transform these hierarchical relations. Excerpt: It does not require a great deal of explication to demonstrate how these statements and interpretations of local gay life convey a classed framework that separates ‘Barbadian men’ from Edward {Bed & Breakfast Owner] and the British or American gay tourist: Barbadian men were described as belonging to economically lower strata than Edward and his foreign guests through his references to them as ‘poorer’ or ‘gold-diggers’. However, his presentation also conveyed racial difference: Edward would often substitute ‘black’ for ‘local’ as he would tell us how most ‘blacks in Barbados were not well off which is why some of the locals look for tourists’. This weaving together of local/black with lower socio-economic status also effectively rendered white and middle or higher class status as an invisible but powerful marker of the tourist’s identity. This fusion of class and race relations resonates with long-standing colonially inflected binary representations of the poor, colored, ignorant, not-to-be-trusted, sexually mysterious and/or exotic colonized subject versus the educated, wealthy, and sexually and intellectually enlightened white Euro-American male.. Once again, one of the effects of these highly circulated discourses is to reinforce the modernist binary distinction between a modern, ‘civilized’ individualist and liberated American or British white society and an uncivilized, racialized ‘other’ through the disparaging portrayal of sexual values and attitudes of the latter as culturally uniform, primitive, violent and/or unjust (qua Patton, 1997). And once again, this representation of a uniformly homophobic nation or region is problematic in its tendency to erase, what in fact is a diverse range of values and practices. Some of the Barbadians that I interviewed do not perceive their society, or at least their social world, to be aggressively homophobic...

Murray DAB (2009). Bajan Queens, Nebulous Scenes: Sexual Diversity in Barbados. CRGS: Caribbean Review of Gender Studies, 3. PDF Download. Abstract: This article has three objectives: 1) to provide a brief and partial overview of the complex socio-sexual terrain of Barbados, primarily from the perspective of Barbadian (Bajan) “queens” (effeminate homosexual men, some of whom dress and act like women), such documentation being necessary given the paucity of social science research that currently exists on same-gender sexuality in the Caribbean; 2) to analyze how and why a particular sexual subject position—the queen—appears to occupy a marginally acceptable and relatively visible position in Bajan public culture while normatively gendered “gay”- identified individuals are denigrated and absent in this domain; and 3) to analyze how and why Bajan sexual subjects like “gays” and “queens” do not mirror Euro-American sexual subjectivities and their relationships to hegemonic socio-sexual values. Particularly relevant in the Bajan sexscape are racialized intersections of gender and class structured through discourses of respect and reputation.

Abramschmitt C (2007). Is Barbados Ready for Same-Sex Marriage?: Analysis of Legal and Social Constructs. SALICES Conference Paper. PDF Download.

Massiah E, et al. (2004). Stigma, discrimination, and HIV/AIDS knowledge among physicians in Barbados. Rev Panam Salud Publica (Pan American Journal of Public Health), 16(6): 395–401. PDF Download.

GLBT Caribbean Travel (2011): Even though some of the islands of the Caribbean have a reputation for homophobia (Jamaica is a prime example), for most of the islands, once there are no public displays of affection (PDA), most people look the other way and are generally comfortable and friendly with gay and lesbian travelers... Generally speaking, when traveling in the Caribbean, once gay and lesbian travelers remember the PDA rule and all should be well!... Barbados has a reputation for homophobia, but there are actually some very "friendly" restaurants and bars around the island. Of particular note is the Waterfront Cafe in Bridgetown with a wonderful location overlooking the water, and serving great food and cold drinks six days a week until 5:30pm. Surfers Cafe in Oistins is gay and lesbian friendly, has good food in generous portions at reasonable prices, and the coldest beers. They also have live music at weekends. The 39 Steps and Champers are very "friendly" restaurants with great food and service, and are not to be missed on any account. Mama Mia, with locations on the Hastings main road and in Wildey, is very gay and lesbian friendly and welcoming....

Resource Links: - The Gully. - Search GayToday.com Archives. - Barbados Gays & Lesbians Against Discrimination: Links to News Articles (To 2003). - BGLAD (To 2003): Barbados Gays & Lesbians Against Discrimination.

Image Magazine: Barbados’s First Gay E-Magazine: Download Page For Issues 1, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 10, 11, 12 - e.g. Image (Issue 9): Barbados’s First Gay E-Magazine: Editors Note: Homosexuality debate rages in Barbados - Parties - We know what we are. - Full of pride for gay son. - Homosexuality should be accepted. - The Countessa. - Movies Review. - Too gay... - Personal Grooming. - UGLAB

Global Gayz: Caribbean: Barbados. Barbados News Reports from 2003 to the Present. - ILGA: Barbados- LGBT rights in Barbados- Sodomy Laws: Barbados. - The International Encyclopedia of Sexuality:  Barbados Not Included.

FRee Forum Online (Numerous Articles): No. 1 choice in the fight against AIDS, for men who have sex with men (MSM) and Gay communities in the Caribbean (To 2009). - FRee Forum Issues: #1: Pride 2002. - # 2: World AIDS Day, 2002. - #3: Carnival 2003. - #4: Pride 2003. - #5: World AIDS Day 2003. # 6: Carnival 2004.  - #7: Prde 2004.  #8: World AIDS Day 2004. - # 9: Pride 2005. - # 10: Pride 2005: Advocacy & Human Rights in the Caribbean. - # 11: World AIDS Day 2005: Keeping the Promise. - # 12: What's Your Position: Caribbean Men & HIV. - # 13: Pride 2006. - # 14: World AIDS Day 2006. - # 15: Health & Social issues for the Men who have Sex with Men Communities in the Caribbean. - # 16: Pride 2007. - # 17: World AIDS Day 2007. - # 18: Carnival 2008. - # 19: Pride 2008 - United by Pride = Bound by Equity.  - # 20: Treatment and Care 2008. - # 21: Prevention 2009: Steps Toward Personal Change.  - # 22: Human Rights & Advocacy: Chances to Change, 2009.

MSMGF News Articles & Documents Resources. By Region & Country:  - Caribbean: - Barbados

Blabbeando Blog: Latin American GLBTQ News / Commentaries: 2005 to Present. 


DOMINICAN REPUBLIC (Wikipedia): - Dominican Republic Gay Pride 2011. - Gays stage “Caravan of pride” for their rights (2011). - Homosexuales y lesbianas de República Dominicana exigen respeto para sus preferencias sexuales (2011, Translation): Decenas de homosexuales y lesbianas desfilaron este domingo por la avenida George Washington en donde exigieron un Estado que respete la libre expresión de la personalidad, sexualidad y expresión de identidad de cada uno de sus ciudadanos. La comunidad gay y lésbica  hizo el pedimento durante la marcha en donde celebraron el día Internacional del Orgullo y la Dignidad Gay..

Homosexuales y lesbianas rompen el silencio y exigen derechos (2011, Translaqtion): Cientos de gays, lesbianas, bisexuales y transgéneros rompieron el silencio este domingo al que aseguran lo tienen sometidos los sectores tradicionales de poder de la sociedad dominicana y exigieron que se cumplan los artículos 39, 40 y 43 de la Constitución de la República, en una marcha que recorrió varias avenidas de la capital. - Latinoamérica: Lesbianas, bisexuales y transexuales discuten por el derecho a la diversidad sexual (2011, Translation): Las dominicanas relataron lo importante que ha sido para ellas aliarse con otros grupos y su lucha por combatir abusos a través de la difusión de información. Según algunos de las participantes, el intercambio de experiencias alcanzado en este encuentro, podría ser el punto de partida para una alianza regional de organizaciones LGBT.

GLBT Pride Santo Domingo 2009. - Dominican Republic: Gay pride 2008, pt. II. - Dominican Republic: Gay pride out in the open (2007): A year ago this week, we were trying to ascertain whether an semi-anonymously announced LGBT rights rally had taken place in one of Santo Domingo's main outdoor parks. There was no mention of the rally in the local papers but a friend would later tell me that close to 250 people congregated at the Duarte Park in a show of LGBT public visibility. - 2010 Gay Caribbean USA Pageant Interview with Dominican Republic's Contestant.- Pastor Ezequiel Molina censorship gay beauty contest Dominicans (2008, Translation): El reverendo Ezequiel Molina Rosario condenó enérgicamente la celebración de un concurso de belleza de homosexuales en Santiago de los Caballeros y dijo que esa acción forma parte de la pérdida de valores que afecta a la humanidad.  El religioso también fustigó el matrimonio entre personas de un mismo sexo y opinó que eso va en contra de la ley de Dios y los valores familiares. - Pastor Ezequiel Molina censura concurso de belleza de homosexuales dominicanos (2008, Translation).

¿Matrimonios homosexuales en RD? (2011, Translation): En la zona turística de la región Este en República Dominicana se están efectuando matrimonios homosexuales ilegales, ya que son prohibidos por la constitución dominicana. - Realizan ‘bodas’ de gays en hoteles del Este de RD (2011, Translation): Matrimonios entre homosexuales, en franca violación a la Constitución, han estado realizándose en algunos de los hoteles de la zona este del país, por lo que alarmada frente a esa situación, la Junta Central Electoral (JCE) dispuso la prohibición inmediata de esas uniones ilegales. - República Dominicana: impiden que en hoteles se puedan celebrar bodas homosexuales, aunque sean sin validez legal (2011, Translation): República Dominicana no permite el matrimonio entre personas del mismo sexo. Sin embargo, algunas parejas celebran enlaces simulados en los que, pese a tratarse de bodas sin valor legal, aprovechan para invitar a familia y amigos... “Por las razones legales anteriormente expuestas, la presente instrucción es de ejecución inmediata y de obligatorio cumplimiento, ya que de continuar esta práctica se permitiría una violación flagrante a nuestro ordenamiento institucional y a las costumbres y valores consagrados en nuestra Carta Magna”, reza la instrucción. Responsables de algunos de los hoteles implicados han explicado que cuando han tenido lugar este tipo de ceremonias se ha tratado de actos privados simulados, que carecen de valor legal, y que ellos no pueden impedir que las parejas del mismo sexo hagan este uso de sus instalaciones. Jerarquía católica y líderes evangélicos se encuentran entre los que han puesto el grito en el cielo. El cardenal y arzobispo de Santo Domingo, Nicolás de Jesús López, ha pedido a la Junta Central Electoral endurecer las sanciones contra los hoteles. .

Los deportistas homosexuales son discriminados por la Confederación Dominicana de Voleibol (2011): El presidente de la Confederación Dominicana de Voleibol ha defendido la prohibición de que los jugadores homosexuales puedan "compartir cancha y baños con los niños y niñas", alegando que dicha prohibición se ha establecido por "casos de asedios por parte de jugadores y fanáticos homosexuales". Después de la denuncia pública de diversas organizaciones deportivas de lesbianas, gays, transexuales y bisexuales de la República Dominicana, se ha conocido que la Confederación Dominicana de Voleibol está discriminando en la actualidad a las minorías sexuales que forman parte de la organización..- Los deportistas homosexuales son discriminados por la Confederación Dominicana de Voleibol (2011, Translation).- Embajada de EEUU: Los dominicanos somos homófobos, discriminamos a los homosexuales y lesbianas (2011, Translation).

Trans woman murdered in Dominican Republic (2011, Video). - Dominican Police Investigate Two Transgender Murders (2009). - Transexuales: entre la homofobia y el abuso de autoridad  (2010, Translation).  - Los travestis están llenos de temor ante asesinatos de ocho compañeros (2009, YouTube, Translation): SANTO DOMINGO, República Dominicana.- Expresiones como la de este transexual eran comunes en el Cementerio Cristo Redentor durante el sepelio de Kelly, como se daba a conocer entre sus compañeros travestis el joven Alejandro Correa Pichardo, asesinado la noche del miércoles 25 de noviembre en la avenida Ortega y Gasset... El transexual Rafael del Orbe, conocido en la agrupación Transa como Thalía Armendares ha participado en protestas pacíficas destinadas a hacer valer lo que entiende son los derechos de los homosexuales, travestis, lesbianas y transexuales de la República Dominicana, dice que su mayor preocupación ha sido la impunidad en que se quedan los asesinatos de sus compañeros..

TRANSSA (Trans Siempre Amigas) (2011, Translation): El pasado 18 de Agosto se realizo en las instalaciones del Hotel Lina el V Foro de Derechos Humanos GLBT “Educando en la Diversidad” organizado por Amigos Siempre Amigos-ASA y su Red de Voluntarios-RevASA con el auspicio de Heartland Alliance y ONUSIDA... La actividad contó con la presencia de representantes de las diferentes organizaciones GLBT del país, miembros de la Alianza de Hombres Gays, Trans y otros Hombres que tienen Sexo con Hombres Alianza GTH, así como representantes de las diferentes agencias de cooperación y entidades gubernamentales. - Transexuales de Republica Dominicana piden que crímenes contra ellas no queden inmunes (2009, Translation): Diario Digital de Información Transexual-. La organización Trans Siempre Amigas- (TRANSSA), que agrupa a la comunidad de transexuales y travestis en República Dominicana, realizó ayer tarde una manifestación para exigir a las autoridades el esclarecimiento de los crímenes perpetrados contra algunas de sus miembros en las últimas semanas.

Homosexualidad: bajo el terror (2010, Translation):  La organización Transsa Siempre Amigas, que organiza a jóvenes de orientación sexual diversa, incluyendo a quienes hacen trabajo sexual en determinadas avenidas, denunció que en República Dominicana se incrementa el número de crímenes contra las personas “gays”. - Denuncian Discriminación Policial Contra Gays en Republica Dominicana.(2010, Translation):Integrantes de organizaciones de trabajadoras sexuales, transgéneros, travestis, transexuales, usuarios de drogas, hombres que tienen sexo con otros, gay, inmigrantes y personas privadas de la libertad denunciaron que son sometidos a altos niveles de discriminación cuando demanda al Estado servicios de salud, educación o seguridad policial.:

Transexuales Republica Dominicana piden el alto de represión policial, crímenes y exclusión (2010, Translation): Integrantes de organizaciones de trabajadoras sexuales, transgéneros, travestis, transexuales, usuarios de drogas, hombres que tienen sexo con otros, gay, inmigrantes y personas privadas de la libertad denunciaron que son sometidos a altos niveles de discriminación cuando demanda al Estado servicios de salud, educación o seguridad policial en la Republica Dominicana. - No blacks, no gays, Dominican Republic bar sticks by its ways (2010): Santo Domingo.- Rua's Bar, a disco located in the heart of Dominican Republic’s capital on Thursday defended its decision to bar homosexuals or blacks, stating that it serves “a demanding” and “elite” public which “decides whom to rub elbows with and whom not,” news source clavedigital.com reports. - Discoteca en República Dominicana discrimina homosexuales y negros (2010, Translation): Santo Domingo, República Dominicana.Rua’s Bar, una discoteca ubicada en el ensanche Naco, de esta capital, justificó su decisión de negar la entrada a personas homosexuales o de color negro, bajo el alegato de que sirve a un público “exigente” y de “elite” que “decide con quien codearse y con quién no”. El gerente de Rua’s Bar, Manuel Tomas Díaz Gómez, salió en defensa de la discoteca mediante un comunicado difundido a través de mensajes privados para lo que utilizó el facebook como plataforma. El comunicado fue difundido luego de que personas de las redes sociales comentaran que personas de color negro y homosexuales confrontaron dificultades para entrar a la discoteca el pasado 25 de junio. “NO SOMOS UN BAR RACISTA NI HOMOFOBICO (sic), solo tenemos como todos los negocios y familias, nuestras propias reglas”, dijo Díaz Gómez... - Priest wants church painting removed because ‘angels look gay’ (2010).

Criminalización de la homosexualidad en la sociedad dominicana (2010, Translation): En la sociedad dominicana las expresiones de discriminación contra la población de opciones sexuales diferentes se pueden identificar en la cotidianidad en elementos como los siguientes: - Condena de la presencia de homosexuales,  lesbianas y transexuales en los parques públicos. - El uso de expresiones de “burla” y “humillación” hacia la población gay, lesbiana y transexual. - Expulsiones de jóvenes homosexuales, lesbianas y transexuales de centros educativos. - Bloqueo a la inserción laboral. En la sociedad dominicana no existe equidad y respeto a las opciones sexuales diferentes. La hegemonía de la iglesia católica en el quehacer social de nuestra sociedad así como en las políticas públicas no favorece la equidad ni el respeto a sus derechos. Se deben generar procesos de cambio en nuestras prácticas sociales y de convivencia que erradiquen la discriminación y ofrezcan  iguales opciones a las personas para el ejercicio de sus derechos y su desarrollo humano.

HBO sigue promoviendo prostitución, lesbianismo y homosexuales en la República Dominicana (2009): La cadena de televisión HBO (Home Box Office) ha vuelto a promover la prostitución, el lesbianismo y la homosexualidad en la República Dominicana con la transmisión de un "documental" titulado "Santo Domingo: Paraíso del Sexo" que se difundió nuevamente el domingo en la madrugada en su canal HBO Latino. La cadena repite el documental que estrenó el 28 de febrero de 2006 y que por su contenido generó reacciones en sectores de la sociedad dominicana, la iglesia católica, las sectas evangélicas, el gobierno y del entonces cónsul general en Nueva York, Francisco Fernández. En la introducción al documental se alega que además de ser la tierra del merengue, con bellas playas, la República Dominicana es la perla del Caribe, tiene hermosas mujeres y hombres de sangre caliente. "Es un destino perfecto para cualquiera que busque placer y aventura. Fiestas en el agua, exuberantes bailarinas y damas de compañía en Bocha Chica y la vieja ciudad, donde todo conspira para crear una cornucopia sexual a los más aventureros buscadores de sexo". "República Dominicana es considerada un paraíso en medio del Caribe. La tierra del merengue alberga hermosas playas, una exquisita gastronomía y majestuosos parajes. Pero también una inmensa variedad de gustos y prácticas sexuales", se indica en la película...

Dominican Cardinal Calls Gays Maricones (2007): Imagine a U.S. cardinal using the word faggot to to talk about the GLBT community here. Yes, a girl who went to Catholic school all of her life I am more than aware of the church’s position on gays but he took it to another level, a level of hate and hate speech that is hardly what Jesus would do. - Dominican Republic: Gay bars shut down (2006): Clave Digital reports that a gay dance club called Arena (pictured) and a neighboring gay bar called Punto, two establishments in Santo Domingo's historic colonial zone, were shut down late Saturday night for alleged 'noise violations.' Numbers vary but sixteen to thirty-five patrons and staff members were also detained overnight and then released yesterday morning without charges. - Cierran discoteca y colmadón en Zona Colonial; afirman es represión contra comunidad gay (2006, Translation).

- Machismo and the Dominican Republic: Machismo is defined as a strong sense of masculine pride, or exaggerated exertion of masculinity, or male-like qualities... Machismo also manifests itself in another more violent and dangerous way. Being a “coward” is looked down upon, so a “real” man must fight in order to uphold his honor and status as a man... Equally disturbing is how machismo’s manifestation is defined through the lack of social acceptance of homosexuality. Homosexuality is a social taboo in the country, but in the truest sense, homosexuality starkly contrasts anything that is considered manly. Making fun of homosexuals or even just ignoring their presence is further proof that to be a man in the Dominican Republic is more than just a person’s biology, but what he does and thinks. In certain aspects to befriend a person who is homosexual may cast a suspicious light on a person, even if they are heterosexual, as homosexuality “lessens” the degree of masculinity a person can have...

Gay Pride in the Dominican Republic (2006): Considering the news coming from the Dominican Republic this week, it's worth noting that the 3rd Annual National Gay and Lesbian Pride Forum will take place this Friday, June 23rd, at the Clarion Hotel. The event is organized by the non-profit organization Amigos Siempre Amigos (Friends, Always Friends) and registrations for the event are still being welcome. - It is being sponsored by the Presidential Council on HIV/AIDS. - Dominican Republic: Gay Hotels, Gay B&B, Gay Resorts, Gay Lodging. - Dominican Republic: Gossip show host is gay one moment, ex-gay the next (2007): Anyway, back to May, in a televised interview described here, Ramirez said that he knew he was gay from a young age and that part of his comfortability with being gay stemmed from his parents' acceptance. He also said that he had never been with a woman and would never be with one "because he did not consider himself to be a hypocritical person like many who are married with kids but have a man as a lover."

Proceso de expansión de la comunidad homosexual en la sociedad dominicana en los últimos 30 años (Translation): Tipos de homosexuales: La mujer visible. - El travestí artista. - El travestí: trabajador sexual. - El Homosexual Afeminado: (Partido o Loca). - El Gay "Promedio". - El bisexual. - El Sanky Panky, Un Bisexual Comercial. - El Bugarrón: Un Heterosexual que también tiene relaciones con otros hombres. - Consecuencias psicosociales de la homosexualidad en República Dominicana (Translation): Homosexualidad, orígenes y variaciones - Perspectivas teóricas sobre la homosexualidad - La homosexualidad en la sociedad dominicana - Contexto de la homosexualidad en República Dominicana - Conclusiones - Bibliografía.

Dominican Republic: The Caribbean's offbeat gay-friendly getaway  (2006, Alternate Link). - What I Learned in the Dominican Republic (2007): I went to two gay clubs in D.R., Jay-Dees, a Latin version of Chi-Chis without the smell of fried chicken and Vaseline—I actually enjoyed myself. Also, Club Cha, owned by the legendary and beautiful Chachita Rubino, I had a great time. However, the clubs close at 2am so right when you are ready to get your life, lights out.... - Native Sex Tourists? Eroticized Returns and US-Caribbean Circuits of Desire (2007, UCSRT Inaugural Conference). - Dominican Republic Local Custom Tips: No matter what you see or read, men kissing in public are a no-no and taboo, more so if there're children present, homosexuality is accepted but should be restrain of sexual affection in public. Santo Domingo, Nightlife (2007): Gay life (often gay for pay) flourishes in old Santo Domingo at such clubs as Jay-Dee's, 10 José Reyes (tel. 809/333-6905). Your host is Jerry, the owner, who hails from Philadelphia. Gay Dominicans and visitors mingle to enjoy wet T-shirt contests, drink specials, drag shows, and male strippers. Another hot club is Aire, 313 Mercedes (tel. 809/689-4163), also in the Colonial Zone. This is a cavernous club in a restored colonial mansion with an open-air courtyard. It's one of the best gay or gay-friendly clubs (some straights go here, too) in the Caribbean, and is best visited on Friday or Saturday nights. - Homosexualidad en la República Dominicana (Wikipedia, Translation)

U.S. Dominicans and AIDS (2003): On Miss Universe, sycophantic politicians, and the conversation that never happened... Erasing Gayz... In a final announcement, the representative of the Dominican American Roundtable explained that, in honor of Miss Vega, AIDS would be discussed at the next Dominican American Roundtable Conference, surreally, in Atlantic City. I guess after having our pictures taken with Miss Universe, feeling liberated for being able to say the word AIDS, and patting ourselves on the back for doing nothing, we can all head to the slot machines and roulette wheels.

Gay stigma complicates AIDS education says Dominican health official (2003): "''I know there are men who turn to bisexuality to avoid the stigma society puts on them for being homosexuals, they stay gay but live with women to show they are okay, that further compounds the situation of HIV/AIDS as many women get infected in that kind of relationship,'' she revealed to Caribbean Net News. The AIDS activist added that half the number of men infected on the island have had sex with other men. According to her, about 60 per cent of the 260 people living with HIV/AIDS in Dominica are men. "

Sexual behaviors and risk factors for HIV infection among men who have sex with men in the Dominican Republic (1996). - Meeting the Challenge of the HIV/AIDS Epidemic in the Dominican Republic: The AIDSCAP Response, 1992-1997. - Broadening the social base of AIDS prevention among men who have sex with men (MSM) in the Dominican Republic (DR) (1996). - AIDS and the Enigma of Bisexuality in the Dominican Republic (1996). - Research: Sexual Attitudes and Behaviour of Adolescents (2004). - Knowledge, attitudes, practices and behavioral changes in men who have sex with men (MSM) belonging to support groups in the prevention of HIV/AIDS and community development (1998). - Predominance of heterosexual transmission of HIV in Dominican Republic: AIDS surveillance data from 1983 - 1990 (1991).

The HIV/AIDS Epidemic in the Dominican Republic: Key Contributing Factors (2011): This article reviews HIV/AIDS epidemiological data and recent research conducted in the Dominican Republic, with a focus on explaining the variability in estimated seroincidence and prevalence within the country. HIV seroprevalence estimates range from 1.0% (in the general population) to 11.0% among men who have sex with men (MSM). Some have indicated that the highest HIV seroprevalence occurs in Haitian enclaves called bateyes (US Agency for International Development [USAID], 2008), which are migrant worker shantytowns primarily serving the sugar industry in the Dominican Republic. Others report higher or comparable rates to the bateyes in areas related to the tourism and sex industries.

Centro de Orientacion e Investigacion Integral (Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic) (2010): For 20 years, Centro de Orientacion e Investigacion Integral (Center for Integrated Training and Research, or COIN) has been caring for vulnerable communities, including people living with HIV. In 2007, however, physicians were surprised to see that many transgender women who were first-time clients of the clinic were being diagnosed with advanced AIDS. The staff soon realized that these transgender clients were rarely accessing medical services, if at all, as a result of years of systematic discrimination and alienation from the public healthcare system...

A Black Gay Man: That’s Who I Am: A Black Diaspora MSM Consultation (2011): On March 31 to April 3, 2011 over forty gay men who are civil society leaders, advocates, researchers and policymakers from North America and the Caribbean met in Punta Cana, Dominican Republic for the Black Gay Men’s Summit. The Summit (also referred to as an MSM consultation) was convened by the Black AIDS Institute to bring together black gay men for an intensive results-oriented weekend which is designed to develop a clear, consensus-based agenda for optimizing the potential of recent opportunities and threats Black Gay men and other men who have sex with men are facing.. - Concerns for Black Gay/Bisexual HIV Raised to Global Platform at Dominican Republic Conference (2011).

Special Science Issue Examines HIV/AIDS in Latin America and the Caribbean (2006):  Haiti and the Dominican Republic, which share the island of Hispaniola, have 85 percent of the Caribbean's cases. At the end of last year, the Caribbean's HIV/AIDS prevalence rate of 1.6 percent was the second-highest in the world, after sub-Saharan Africa. Haiti has an adult prevalence rate of 3.8 percent, and the Dominican Republic 1.1 percent. Although the Dominican Republic's prevalence rate is less than one-third of Haiti's, surprisingly the Dominican Republic's HIV/AIDS programs are far inferior. "It's 1,000 times better in Haiti," says Keith Joseph, a physician at Columbia University who has provided HIV/AIDS care in both countries. Researchers estimate that 78 percent of infections in the Dominican Republic now occur through heterosexual sex, some of which is linked to a booming sex trade. Prevalence rates as high as 12 percent have been documented among sex workers.

Symposium on "Male Sex Work Identities and their Implications for Health" (2002): The conference placed a regional emphasis on Latin America and the Caribbean, since most of the presenters drew on research experiences in this area. The morning session was devoted to a case study of male sex work among “bugarrones” and “sanky pankies” – local terms for different identities of men who have sex with men – in Boca Chica and Santo Domingo, the Dominican Republic. The presenters included the four members of an international team of collaborating professionals who conducted a three year ethnographic study of Dominican male sex work between 1999 and 2001 (Mark Padilla, Emory anthropology doctoral student; Leonardo Sánchez, Executive Director, Amigos Siempre Amigos [ASA], Santo Domingo; Dr. Martha Arredondo, clinical counseling and services, ASA, Santo Domingo; and Dr. Armando Matiz, Executive Director, Alcanza Tu Armonía, Bogotá, Colombia). Each of the collaborators presented on various aspects of this extensive qualitative–quantitative ethnographic study. Padilla discussed the political-economic context of the tourism industry and the ways the rapidly changing informal sector economy contributes to the emergence of new types of male sex work in the Dominican Republic. Sánchez described the cultural / linguistic definition of the identity terms “bugarrón” and “sanky panky” in the Dominican context, their usage in discourse, male sex workers’ self-identification practices, and the historical emergence of each identity category. Dr. Arredondo discussed more survey results from the study, including data on condom use, perception of HIV risk, and sociodemographic profile. And finally, Dr. Matiz discussed the psycho-emotional stance of sex workers and the ways that it influences their sexual behavior, self-representation practices, performance for wives and girlfriends, and risk for HIV.

A 'gay paradise' revisited: perceived HIV/AIDS impact on the male sex industry in Santo Domingo (1998): Changes in male sex work related to AIDS suggest the continuation of a culture of paid male to male clandestine sexual relations. This industry's successive expansion with sex tourism and constriction with AIDS appears to evince how pervasive this 'underground' culture may be, and how speedily it may react to environmental threats. - Tourism Development in the Dominican Republic Growth, Costs, Benefits and Choices (1999): There is still a sector of the tourism industry which thrives by servicing foreigners sexually, both hetero- and homosexual." ... Of urgent concern is sex tourism involving minors. A human rights group concluded in the early 1990s that sexual exploitation of both girls and boys was condoned "and most likely promoted" by the government, tourist services, travel agencies and hotels.

Stigma, Social Inequality, and HIV Risk Disclosure among Dominican Male Sex Workers (2008):  Data derive from long-term ethnography and qualitative in-depth interviews with 72 male sex workers, which were used to analyze the relationships among experiences of stigma, social inequality, and patterns of sexual risk disclosure. Thematic analysis of interviews and ethnographic evidence revealed a wide range of stigma management techniques utilized by sex workers to minimize the effects of marginality due to their engagement in homosexuality and sex work. These techniques imposed severe constraints on men’s sexual risk disclosure, and potentially elevated their own and their female partners’ vulnerability to HIV infection.

Final Report for the AIDSCAP Program in the Dominican Republic October 1993 to April 1997: "Amigos Siempre Amigos (ASA) is the first NGO in the Dominican Republic dedicated exclusively to working with men who have sex with men (MWM). It has six years of experience implementing HIV/AIDS prevention under its "Triunfadores" and "Alto al SIDA" projects.... ASA found that many self-identified sub-groups existed within the larger MWM population. This included bisexuals, transsexuals, transvestites, and homosexuals. Some of the sub-groups also involved in commercial sex work deemed necessary the development of specific STI/HIV/AIDS  strategies for these sub-groups. - Final Report for the AIDSCAP Program in the Dominican Republic October 1993 to April 1997: Executive Summary.

Halperin DT, de Moya EA, Pérez-Then E, Pappas G, Garcia Calleja JM (2009). Understanding the HIV epidemic in the Dominican Republic: a prevention success story in the Caribbean? Journl of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome, 51 Suppl 1: S52-9. PDF Download. Objective: To analyze the general dynamics and trends of the HIV epidemic in the Dominican Republic (DR).Methods: Thorough review of available HIV seroprevalence and sexual behavioral data from the DR... Conclusions: As in several other developing countries that have succeeded in slowing HIV transmission, HIV reductions in the DR seem mainly due to changes in sexual behavior, particularly increased condom use, especially for sex work, and partner reduction in men. Similarly favorable HIV declines and reported behavior change have occurred in some other Caribbean countries, including neighboring Haiti. However, of concern is that anal sex, both male-male and heterosexual, remains a taboo yet apparently common practice largely ignored by existing prevention campaigns. And although the DR epidemic has generally stabilized, there is a danger of complacency, and some recent data suggest that HIV prevalence is no longer declining (and may even be increasing) in some populations.

Rights for Everyone: Media, Religion, and Sexual Orientation in the Dominican Republic (2002): "In the summer of 2002, groups that support the recognition of the GLBT rights were denied permission to celebrate a gay pride march. In the last months, newspapers and radio and television programs have dedicated time to the issue of homosexuals and the role of the media. In the midst of arguments in favor and against, the polemic seems to endure, but the root of the debate is not so much if “homosexual characters” on television are suitable for children, but if gays should be permitted to work and be present in the media at all. In the Dominican Republic, no laws exist against “homosexuality” and the ones that referred to “acts against the good customs or the morale” have been eliminated. Hence, the GLBT community is not persecuted legally; however, depending on their social status, gays or lesbians may feel more or less perturbed since the more conservative segments of Dominican society frown upon any public display of their sexual preferences. There still remains a lot of work to be done to overcome these social prejudices and ideological obstacles.  Although many mentalities change very slowly, they do tend to change in the end. Ten or twenty years ago, nobody could have imagined that Dominican newspapers would publish articles stating that persons belonging to the GLBT community have the same rights as the rest."

Boston Office Client Wins Significant Asylum Victory (Pro Bono Bulletin, January, 2004: PDF Download): "In the Dominican Republic, homosexuality is regarded as deviant, shameful, and contrary to social and religious norms. From the time he realized he was gay at age 14, Mr. V. suffered continuous persecution from those all around him. He was physically and verbally harassed in high school, at university, and in the workplace, often by peers. Teachers and supervisors did nothing to limit these attacks; indeed, sometimes the officials themselves assaulted him. Mr. V. also understood that his country's police would offer him no protection. In the Dominican Republic, the police have a long history of arbitrary and capricious treatment of gay Dominicans. Mr. V. saw police officers stand silently by while he was threatened in public places, and he knew they had a larger history of refusing to provide protection to gay people, of imprisoning gays without just cause, and of engaging in violence against them. The year before Mr.V. came to the U.S., the only other person from his town whom he knew to be gay was found brutally murdered and sexually mutilated after having suffered years of similar abuse. After 18 years of this life, Mr. V.'s job brought him to the U.S. While visiting with family before his seminar was to begin, Mr. V. quickly came to see how different life could be in America..." - Gay asylum seeker safe at last: A Dominican man wins safe harbor in America at last (2003). - Gay Dominican granted assylum in the US due to sexual orientation (2003).

Dominican Republic: Country Reports on Human Rights Practices, 2001: Released by the Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor, March 4, 2002: "Homosexual and transvestite detainees report to gay rights advocates that during detention the police have held them in a darkened room and have given them the alternative of performing fellatio on guards or being placed in a locked cell with the most dangerous prisoners, where the detainees presumed that they would be raped, beaten, or both. Other informants confirmed that the police use the prospect of being locked in with the most dangerous prisoners as a threat." - The fight for civil rights: Homosexuality and the Dominican Republic: There are no varying degrees of homosexuality, though in certain circles within Latin America to be homosexual, and partaking in homosexual acts, are mutually exclusive. In the Dominican Republic a male who has sex with another male, supposedly maintains his masculinity if he is the one penetrating, and not being penetrated. This is because to be the “penetrator” implies a construction of power, and the man who is penetrating is in control, therefore still a man. Even in the jail cultures this is evident, as those who perform oral sex are ‘gay,’ while those who receive it are “straight.” The simple point of being considered a man, even after partaking in a perceived homosexual act, is an insight that cannot be overlooked. The importance of this fact can be tied into the machismo rhetoric that is played out daily in the lives of men and women across the island. According to machismo attitudes, a man is strong, courageous, and brave. He is always in control, never ‘bowing’ to anyone, while in turn the female is an inferior, non-controlling being. She is somewhat of a non-valued, submissive object whose sole purpose is to clean the house, or bear children. .. In the Dominican Republic these dichotomies in the end don’t mean much, as both men who partake in any form of homosexual activities, or even have the appearance of an effeminate male, are ostracized or considered gay by the society at large. Men who behave in an effeminate manner, or who are suspected of playing the passive role in same-sex intercourse, bear the brunt of social stigma because in doing so they ceded their claims to manly status... Homosexuality is not illegal in the Dominican Republic, and terms referring to the disintegration of the moral good have been removed from legal documents, but protection for those in the GLBT community is still basically non-existent.

Dominican Republic LGBT Movement: A Sociopolitical and Cultural Approach (2004, PDF Download): The goal of this project is to analyze the formation and development of the LGBTQ movement in the Dominican Republic, from a historical and sociopolitical perspective. It also looks at providing visibility to the Dominican sexual minorities through observing their presence in the past and the present, and acknowledging their contributions to the development of society. In order to achieve these goals, I am examining the formation and development of the movement in the context of the Dominican Republic’s social, cultural, economic, and political dynamics. I also analyze documents, publications, and dissertations, and conduct interviews with members of LGBTIQ groups and individuals... Lesbian sexual activism has been led by radical feminist women. The majority of non-feminist and moderate feminist-lesbians accept the rules of the dominant heterosexual group. Most of them are closeted. They fear the family rejection and maintain clandestine sexual relations with other women. Many of them are fervid critics of the LGBTQ movement. They reject the fact that activism breaks the class-boundary that guarantees a privileged position to the small elite in an exclusive unequal society. There are few adult gay men involved in activism. Most of them are closeted and have clandestine homosexual relationships. They also reject the crossed-class relations prevailing in the movement. Gay men activists are mostly young, students, workers, employees or NGO’s members whose participation in the movement has destroyed in some cases their family relations and job positions. Bisexual people are not interested in the LGBTQ struggles. Many of them are either married or divorced, and have children. They like to enjoy the benefits of a semi-clandestine acceptable position in society that eases their integration in the dominant heterosexual group and allows them to maintain relations with gays, lesbians, transsexuals, and transgender. Transgender, transsexuals, and tranvestis represent the underground society. Most of them are very poor and are prostituted as an early age in order to survive. They are usually abused by the police and die in violent incidents at a very young age... - Gay Dominican Republic: New Surprises and Old Fears (2006).

Reyes JA (2005?). Homosexualidad en República Dominicana. Full text. Translation. Surgimiento y evolución de la homosexualidad en la humanidad - La homosexualidad y la iglesia católica - Homosexualidad en república dominicana - Características diagnósticas del trastorno de identidad sexual - Prevalencia y población - Factores incidentes - Tratamiento - Recomendaciones - Conclusión.

Los travestis están llenos de temor ante asesinatos de ocho compañeros (2009, YouTube, Translation): SANTO DOMINGO, República Dominicana.- Expresiones como la de este transexual eran comunes en el Cementerio Cristo Redentor durante el sepelio de Kelly, como se daba a conocer entre sus compañeros travestis el joven Alejandro Correa Pichardo, asesinado la noche del miércoles 25 de noviembre en la avenida Ortega y Gasset... El transexual Rafael del Orbe, conocido en la agrupación Transa como Thalía Armendares ha participado en protestas pacíficas destinadas a hacer valer lo que entiende son los derechos de los homosexuales, travestis, lesbianas y transexuales de la República Dominicana, dice que su mayor preocupación ha sido la impunidad en que se quedan los asesinatos de sus compañeros.

Republica Dominicana TRANSEXUALES Videos (2011, Translation): Transsa denuncia 10 asesinatos de odio en RD desde el 2006 (Rueda de Prensa 23 junio 2010) - TRANSSA. - 4to. Aniversario - Expresiones de las Trans /Parte 4. - TRANSSA / Se suma un Caso mas a los Crimenes de Odio contra Personas Trans en Republica Dominicana. - Los travestis están llenos de temor ante asesinatos de ocho compañeros...

Toro-Alfonso J, Varas-Díaz N (2005).Exclusión e internalización del estigma en hombres que tienen sexo con hombres en la República Dominicana: Implicaciones para la salud en América Latina y el Caribe. PDF Download. Translation.

Homosexuales Que Ejercen la Prostitucion en la Avenida San Vicente de Paul (2009, YouTube, Translation, Alternate Link): República Dominicana, este reportaje homosexuales que tienen como modo de supervivencia la prostitucion hacen revelaciones importantes a las camaras. del periodico digital.

LGBTQ Movements and Advocacy in Dominican Republic: Universty Course, NYU: This service-learning course will explore gender and sexuality-based social justice movements, non-governmental organizations and queer cultures in the Spanish-speaking Caribbean, specifically in island of Dominican Republic. We seek to contextualize the Dominican Republic as a geopolitical ideological site with shared historical, cultural and linguistic manifestations with other Islands that compose the Spanish-speaking Caribbean, namely Cuba and Puerto Rico. We will specifically explore culturally-specific mechanisms through which different feminist and LGBTQ Dominican groups and organizations have generated consciousness around the realities of people who experience discrimination because of their actual or perceived sexual orientation, gender identity or expression. Students who enroll for the course are expected to engage in experiential learning. The course will include four class meetings at New York University and a two-week service trip to the cities of Santo Domingo, Puerto Plata and Santiago in Dominican Republic...

Resource Links: - The Gully. - Search GayToday.com Archives. - Gay Santo Domingo (To 2009).- Monaga: The life and times of a gay American ex-patriate living and learning in Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic (To 2010)... From 2010 to the Present: The #1 information source for gay travelers to the Dominican Republic. - TRANSSA (Trans Siempre Amigas)  (Translation). - Cristianos Gays (Translation): República Dominicana (Translation).

Global Gayz: Caribbean: Dominican Republic. Barbados News Reports from 2003 to the Present. - ILGA: Dominican Republic- LGBT rights in Dominican Republic- Sodomy Laws. - The International Encyclopedia of SexualityDominican Republic Not Included.

FRee Forum Online (Numerous Articles): No. 1 choice in the fight against AIDS, for men who have sex with men (MSM) and Gay communities in the Caribbean (To 2009). - FRee Forum Issues: #1: Pride 2002. - # 2: World AIDS Day, 2002. - #3: Carnival 2003. - #4: Pride 2003. - #5: World AIDS Day 2003. # 6: Carnival 2004.  - #7: Prde 2004.  #8: World AIDS Day 2004. - # 9: Pride 2005. - # 10: Pride 2005: Advocacy & Human Rights in the Caribbean. - # 11: World AIDS Day 2005: Keeping the Promise. - # 12: What's Your Position: Caribbean Men & HIV. - # 13: Pride 2006. - # 14: World AIDS Day 2006. - # 15: Health & Social issues for the Men who have Sex with Men Communities in the Caribbean. - # 16: Pride 2007. - # 17: World AIDS Day 2007. - # 18: Carnival 2008. - # 19: Pride 2008 - United by Pride = Bound by Equity.  - # 20: Treatment and Care 2008. - # 21: Prevention 2009: Steps Toward Personal Change.  - # 22: Human Rights & Advocacy: Chances to Change, 2009.

MSMGF News Articles & Documents Resources. By Region & Country:  - Caribbean: - Dominican Republic

Blabbeando Blog: Latin American GLBTQ News / Commentaries: 2005 to Present. 


 GRENADA (Wikipedia):  -  Gov't says no to homosexuality (2006): Health Minister Ann David-Antoine says the Grenada Government will not consider a recommendation to decriminalise homosexuality and prostitution on the island. A recent study commissioned by the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) recommended the decriminalisation of homosexuality and prostitution. - Grenada will not consider legal reforms to allow homosexuality, prostitution (2006): Health Minister Ann David-Antoine said religious and cultural factors would prevent the government from taking up legal reforms advised in a report by the United Nations Development Programme in Barbados after a September conference on combating HIV/AIDS.

 Gay Man Arrested In Grenada (2011): A 41-year-old gay man, who reportedly had sex with an unidentified 17-year-old, has been arrested in Grenada. Prosecutors in the Spice Isle are charging the man with having sex with another male as local law prohibits sodomy under the charge of “unnatural connection.” If convicted, the gay man faces up to 10 years in prison. - Two men on the Caribbean island of Grenada have been arrested for having gay sex (2011). - In Grenada, arrests for homosexuality - and public denials of homosexuality (2011). - Gay Sex In Grenada Is Illegal Unless You’re A Lesbian (2011).

Grenada opens arms to gay cruises (2007,  Alternate Link): The Grenada Government yesterday announced that it would not prevent several cruise ships carrying gay passengers from docking at Port St. George over the next few months. A statement from the Ministry of Tourism says there has been a negative fallout as a result of reports in the foreign press suggesting that the country was moving to ban gay cruises to the island. - Grenada relents on gay cruises (2007Alternate Link): She said: "We will continue to welcome all visitors and we will work, along with our population, to ensure that their time and ours will be enjoyable. Grenada respects the rights of all persons of all persuasions and lifestyles." Left unmentioned was that homosexual relations remain illegal in Grenada. The government's position was reached "following several days of consultations on the matter involving tourism officials and various stakeholders," the minister's statement said. .

Sexuality, Gender, HIV Vulnerability & Human Rights in Grenada: A Shadow Report to the United Nations Human Rights Committee (PDF Download): The buggery laws of Grenada effectively criminalize consensual homosexual relations, providing for up to 10 years of imprisonment. Beyond establishing a legal ground for the deprivation of life, liberty, health and opportunity, these laws preserve ingrained stereotypes about homosexuals and, in effect, serve to strengthen social stigmas against them. - Grenada: Situation and treatment of homosexuals; state protection and support services (2006-2009) (2009).

Grenada reviewed under the UPR: announces favourable consideration of most recommendations (2010): The small Caribbean island nation of Grenada underwent its review session by the Working Group on the UPR on 10 May 2010. The three-member delegation began its presentation 20 minutes late, and with a relatively short speakers list the session ended 45 minutes early. The Minister for Foreign Affairs, Mr Peter David, presented the State report, which focused largely on the Government’s efforts in the areas of education, housing and the fight against corruption. Mr David provided answers to the written questions submitted in advance by States, which raised concerns about the legality of corporal punishment, discrimination against homosexuals, human trafficking, domestic violence, and inadequacies in the juvenile justice system... - Submission in the UPR review of Grenada (2010): We therefore recommend that the Human Rights Council, in its upcoming review, urge Grenada to bring its legislation into conformity with its international human rights obligations by repealing all provisions which criminalise sexual activity between consenting adults of the same sex...

Brenda Hood: 'It will not happen again' (2002): Minister of Tourism, Senator Brenda Hood has responded to negative feedback from large sections of the population following the visit to the island by hundreds of gay passengers on a cruise ship...  However, she said that she intends to hold discussions with cruise lines, and cruise line agents in Grenada to inform them that promiscuous behaviour is not allowed in Grenada.

Stop discrimination against Blacks and Gays (2010): The same commission received information indicating that "12 countries of the English-speaking Caribbean still have laws criminalising sexual and intimate conduct between persons of the same sex". The commission named these countries as: Antigua and Barbuda, The Bahamas, Barbados, Belize, Dominica, Grenada, Guyana, Jamaica, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, and Trinidad and Tobago. According to the commission's report, sentences range from 10 years in prison or forced labour to life imprisonment for consensual sexual conduct between adults of the same sex. The commission received information indicating that the very existence of such laws perpetuates unwarranted stereotypes, is a cause for fear in the sexually diverse community, and fosters impunity for serious crimes committed against this community. Other detrimental factors that could be added to this are the spread of HIV/AIDS that could result from clandestine same-sex practices, the fear of seeing doctors, and the loss of a productive people who could make a real contribution to Caribbean development in the broadest meaning of that term.

GLBT Caribbean Travel (2011): Even though some of the islands of the Caribbean have a reputation for homophobia (Jamaica is a prime example), for most of the islands, once there are no public displays of affection (PDA), most people look the other way and are generally comfortable and friendly with gay and lesbian travelers... Generally speaking, when traveling in the Caribbean, once gay and lesbian travelers remember the PDA rule and all should be well!... Grenada as a whole tends to be a bit conservative, but the well known and popular Laluna Restaurant has a loyal following of GLBT customers. The excellent Italian food and fabulous views contribute to the attraction of this well established restaurant. Italian food with a Grenadian touch. The wine cellar is stocked with more than 10 000 bottles of wine, many of which are various vintages direct from Italy. 

Resource Links: - The Gully. - Search GayToday.com Archives

Global Gayz: Caribbean: Grenada. Grenada News Reports from 2007 to the Present. - ILGA: Grenada- LGBT rights in Grenada. - Sodomy Laws. - The International Encyclopedia of SexualityGrenada Not Included.

FRee Forum Online (Numerous Articles): No. 1 choice in the fight against AIDS, for men who have sex with men (MSM) and Gay communities in the Caribbean (To 2009). - FRee Forum Issues: #1: Pride 2002. - # 2: World AIDS Day, 2002. - #3: Carnival 2003. - #4: Pride 2003. - #5: World AIDS Day 2003. # 6: Carnival 2004.  - #7: Prde 2004.  #8: World AIDS Day 2004. - # 9: Pride 2005. - # 10: Pride 2005: Advocacy & Human Rights in the Caribbean. - # 11: World AIDS Day 2005: Keeping the Promise. - # 12: What's Your Position: Caribbean Men & HIV. - # 13: Pride 2006. - # 14: World AIDS Day 2006. - # 15: Health & Social issues for the Men who have Sex with Men Communities in the Caribbean. - # 16: Pride 2007. - # 17: World AIDS Day 2007. - # 18: Carnival 2008. - # 19: Pride 2008 - United by Pride = Bound by Equity.  - # 20: Treatment and Care 2008. - # 21: Prevention 2009: Steps Toward Personal Change.  - # 22: Human Rights & Advocacy: Chances to Change, 2009.

MSMGF News Articles & Documents Resources. By Region & Country:  - Caribbean: - Grenada

Blabbeando Blog: Latin American GLBTQ News / Commentaries: 2005 to Present. 


DOMINICA (Wikipedia): - Homosexuality laws in Dominica impractical – Sir Brian Alleyne (2011, Alternate Link): Former Attorney General and former Chief Justice of the Eastern Caribbean Supreme Court has lent his voice to the raging debate of homosexuality and laws pertaining to it in Dominica... Alleyne continued, “I think it is totally wrong. What a person does in the privacy of his home with another person is his business, he is answerable to the Lord and not to any one else.” He said the fundamental issue is whether homosexuality is a crime. “Is it a crime?  Should a person be sent to prison for what he does in his bedroom with the consent of the other party?” - Gay in Dominica willing to go public if proper policies are in place (2011, Alternate Link): Timothy Jack (not his real name) is among the several gay men in Dominica who are willing to go public with their sexual status “if government put policies in place to make the act non discriminatory”. In an exclusive interview with Dominica News Online Tuesday, Jack said he has always felt like a woman and that it was not something he had any control over... He said the public would be amazed at the gays or bi-sexual people in Dominica “who are walking around with their jackets and ties or their classy feminine suits”. “The saddest part about our sexual preferences is that some of these people, especially when they are in the company of straight people, they would lambaste the gays and say how much hatred they got for us, then after the dust are settled, they could engage in the same act,” he explained....

Gays seem to have very nice qualities” - Parry Bellot bats for gay rights (2011, Alternate Link): One government consultant says he is in full support of gay rights in Dominica. Government  productivity consultant  and  former government press secretary, Parry Bellot, was speaking on the heels of an article published on Dominica News Online where a gay called on government to put measures in place to make homosexuality in Dominica non-discriminatory... “Gays seem to have very nice qualities, they are very friendly, very expressive and very artistic,” he explained. He said gays are entitled to their rights, civil unions and marriage. “I do not believe any government has a right to say that you and you cannot be together. For instance if one party dies, the other should be able to enjoy the retirement benefits of the other,” he said. .- Dominica urged to join anti-sodomy campaign (2011): A campaign has been launched to protect Africa and the Caribbean from a gay rights onslaught announced by the UK’s Prime Minister.

Newspaper Applauds Nation's Pro-LGBT Vote at UN (2011): Dominica flag Two weeks ago, some 85 countries at the United Nations Human Rights Council adopted a Joint Statement urging the international community to combat anti-LGBT discrimination and violence. The island of Dominica was the only Eastern Caribbean nation to sign the statement... - Dominica joins 84 nations in signing UN statement defending LGBT people (2011). - Dominicans Share Mixed Feelings on Gay Rights Treaty Signed by Government (2011): Among other opinions, a few Dominicans expressed through local media, that while they do not condone violence of any kind, they are not in support of awarding special rights to gay people. Some believe that the statement does not in any way support homosexuality but only opposes violence against persons with such sexual orientation. Others were totally against the treaty, citing that it was a way of technically letting in homosexuality into the country- which is forbidden, according to the Holy Bible..

CHAP Dominica Calls for Decriminalization of Homosexuality (2011): In a statement sponsored by a Coalition of Caribbean LGBTI & HIV /AIDS organizations, the group contends that state sponsored homophobia undermines citizenship security in the Caribbean... Consequently the group calls on the “leaders of Caricom to guarantee the rights of all citizens by repealing all these laws and aggressively address the scourge of homophobia that undermines our collective security.” - “I respect nobody who is gay,” DFP candidate tells constituents (Dominica) (2009): Nettisha Walsh, the Dominica Freedom Party candidate for the Salisbury constituency, evoked uproar from constituents at a public forum when she declared that she had no respect for gay people. - Let’s Agree to Disagree on Gay Marriage (2008, Video): Gays like everyone else; they’re just looking to be happy.Everyone deserves the same chance at permanence and happiness. Just think of this way – what if someone is now telling you that you cannot get married. I think everyone should watch this video, and then share their views on gay marriage in the comments..

More on AIDS, Homosexuality, and the Buggery Law in Dominica (2008): It is not difficult to understand john Fabien’s position on the controversy surrounding the call for the decriminalization of buggery because of the law’s influence on the spread of HIV/AIDS... It is also not difficult to understand Prime Minister Roosevelt Skerrit’s position when he stated that buggery will not become legal in Dominica as long as he is Prime Minister... We may be in denial about changes to our cultural norms but the fact is AIDS is also spreading like wild fire in our communities. The point is our politicians, religious leaders and community health experts must learn how to bury their differences and find multi-divided solutions to the HIV/AIDS problem. If banning of buggery laws is part of the solution and it may save the lives of ten of thousands of our Caribbean people, then we must discuss the issue without prejudice. It’s not like we have a lot of choices..

Dominica okay with gay tourists (2005): Dominican authorities said on Friday they had an open door policy towards all tourists despite public concerns that several gay cruises had been planned for the country, beginning November. Dominicans have inundated talk shows with calls protesting the proposed arrival of gay tourists, calling them bad news for the country's youths. - Dominica has no plans to decriminalize homosexuality (2000, Alternate Link): Dominica Prime Minister Pierre Charles said the government has no plans to change its law against homosexuality, despite the acting attorney general's recent comments in local media that the measure is discriminatory.

Gay Cruise Ship Visit to Dominica Courts Controversy  (2003). - Gay cruises draw protests in Caribbean (2006, Alternate Link): Roseau, Dominica - Prime Minister Roosevelt Skerrit said Thursday he will meet with evangelicals in Dominica seeking restrictions on gay cruises, which have drawn some protests elsewhere in the Caribbean. Dominica has no restrictions on the tours, but Skerrit told The Associated Press that he will meet soon with the Evangelical Association to outline the government's position on gay cruises stopping in the island. "I will make a statement on the issue after my meeting with the members of the Evangelical Association," he said... "We don't have any problem with gay cruises coming to Dominica," said Francisco Esprit, a board member of the Dominica Taxi Association. "We see it as part of the business and we are yet to receive any negative comments from our members about gay tourism." ...

Los homosexuales no tienen cabida en el ejercito Dominicano (2007, Translation): José Miguel Soto Jiménez que fue secretario de las Fuerzas Armadas en la República Dominica ha dicho que en los recintos militares hay “cero tolerancia” con los homosexuales. Según este señor, en la institución castrense no hay cabida para los homosexuales y “Para mí no caben en las Fuerzas Armadas. Todo aquel que es sorprendido con esas preferencias, de inmediato es separado de los cuarteles”...

Laughing and Learning in Dominica (2007: 2004-2006, Alternate Link): Homosexuality began to surface as a hot-button topic in the Caribbean with the formation of gay cruises in the late ‘90s. In Dominica, the government was eager to promote tourism, but many people opposed allowing gay cruise tours to visit the island. A local singer had released a song for Carnival called “Iron Underpants” which advised local men to craft chastity belts and not drop the soap if “The Gays” came to town. The buzz was reflective of a society that didn’t hate gays with the violence of Jamaica, but viewed us as a disappointing, amusing anomaly. Gay Dominicans were spoken of with a kind of patronizing affection. “Ah! There goes the village gay.” They were tolerated as long as they conformed to public perception of what gays should be. I became friends with a gay couple in the village that had been together for many years. In addition to raising a niece and caring for an aging mother, they were advocates for persons living with HIV. From the start, we did our best to take care of each other... By the time I finished in 2006, I had made my peace with Dominica. Was the island homophobic? Wi (yes). But bearable and mostly enjoyable?

Gay wants to go straight (2011): I am a 20-year-old male from the south and I realize that I am sexually attracted to men. After reading the excerpt from Parry Bellot, I realized that I need to be open about me being gay. Over the past three years I have been with almost 21 men from the country. Bella to be honest with you I did not know there were so many gay men in Dominica, most of them walk the street dressed in jacket and tie and some have wives or girl friends...

Confessions of a “gay thug” (2011): Dear Bella: Let’s get it out there!  I am GAY!  And no, I don’t mean bisexual but fully gay.  However, no one can tell as I don’t act feminine and don’t be seen with gay people. I hang with the thug crowd and do all the other manly thuggish things but I am just gay.  It took me a while to accept that this is who I am and even though I am still not confortable with being this way, there is nothing that I can do. The reason that I am writing to you is because I have been having a sexual relationship with another thuggish dude and both of us hang out in the same group.  None of the other guys in the group knows about us and that is the way we want to keep it...

Resource Links: - The Gully. - Search GayToday.com Archives

Global Gayz: Caribbean: DominicaDominica News Reports from 2011 to the Present. - ILGA: Dominica- LGBT rights in Dominica. . - Sodomy Laws. - The International Encyclopedia of SexualityDominica Not Included.

FRee Forum Online (Numerous Articles): No. 1 choice in the fight against AIDS, for men who have sex with men (MSM) and Gay communities in the Caribbean (To 2009). - FRee Forum Issues: #1: Pride 2002. - # 2: World AIDS Day, 2002. - #3: Carnival 2003. - #4: Pride 2003. - #5: World AIDS Day 2003. # 6: Carnival 2004.  - #7: Prde 2004.  #8: World AIDS Day 2004. - # 9: Pride 2005. - # 10: Pride 2005: Advocacy & Human Rights in the Caribbean. - # 11: World AIDS Day 2005: Keeping the Promise. - # 12: What's Your Position: Caribbean Men & HIV. - # 13: Pride 2006. - # 14: World AIDS Day 2006. - # 15: Health & Social issues for the Men who have Sex with Men Communities in the Caribbean. - # 16: Pride 2007. - # 17: World AIDS Day 2007. - # 18: Carnival 2008. - # 19: Pride 2008 - United by Pride = Bound by Equity.  - # 20: Treatment and Care 2008. - # 21: Prevention 2009: Steps Toward Personal Change.  - # 22: Human Rights & Advocacy: Chances to Change, 2009.

MSMGF News Articles & Documents Resources. By Region & Country:  - Caribbean: - Dominica

Blabbeando Blog: Latin American GLBTQ News / Commentaries: 2005 to Present.


SAINT LUCIA (Wikipedia): - Caribbean island St Lucia apologises for attack on gay tourists (2011, Alternate Link): The Caribbean island’s government said it was “saddened” by the incident and extended “sincere apologies” to Todd Wiggins, Michael Baker and Nick Smith of Atlanta. - Three Gay Men Survive Terrifying Ordeal on St. Lucia (2011): Three gay men--a male couple and a friend--were subjected to a terrifying beating and robbery while on the island of St. Lucia, according to an account that one of the men posted at Facebook, GLBT news site Queerty reported on March 7...The assailants demanded to know whether the men were gay, hurling anti-gay epithets at them and telling them that they would murder them if they were "faggots." The men said that they were not gay, and that they had shared the shower only because the hot water supply was very limited. The attackers then robbed and tied the men, and left them in the shower, which was still running...

Homosexuality in Schools  (2011, Video): There is nothing wrong with including discussions on homosexuality as part of sex education in schools, so says Education Minister Arsene James.
The Minister was responding to calls for discussions on the topic to be included in the sex education curriculum to help student's grapple with issues of sexuality. Former Chief Medical Officer, Dr. Stephen King and the National Aids Program Secretariat have also supported the call. However it has been fiercely opposed by some quarters. - Homosexuality as a curriculum subject (2011): A veteran local educator and former President of the Saint Lucia Teachers Union has come out in support of the introduction of homosexuality as a curriculum subject for discussion in schools. But Mrs. Virginia Albert-Poyotte, who is also the local representative for Education International believes authorities are too scared to tackle what they consider to be a very sensitive subject.. - Saint Lucia retains Third Place at Gay Caribbean Pageant (2010).

Being Gay in Saint Lucia (2011, Alternate Link): Joan Didier is considered a foremost expert on marginalized populations. She works extensively with groups such as men who have sex with men in Saint Lucia, advocating on their behalf and fighting to get what she says is their basic human right to live and love as they want without fear of retribution or jail.... Didier agrees that stigma and discrimination are huge factors keeping MSM in the closet. But she also believes that buggery laws and morality, as preached by churches like the predominant Roman Catholic faith, do as much damage if not more... *Randy, a man in his early twenties, does not believe the laws that address homosexuality in Saint Lucia should change. His views about MSMs are in contrast to Didier s although Randy is himself gay. He admits to hating flamboyant gay men during his teen years. “It won t be a good thing because criminals will still want to kill them (gays), he says, referring to decriminalizing homosexual activities... His biggest challenge is familial acceptance. Although his family and friends admit he has always been effeminate, he is affected by their constant scrutiny of his feminine walk. Randy says they do not approve of him. That is why he lives away from them and seldom visits, despite missing them desperately, especially his mother...

Being gay..  (2011, Alternate Link): “Homosexual”, “Lesbian” and “Gay” were not the type of sophisticated words I grew up with. The people so described today had more crude descriptions back then – from “macoumere” to “boolah” to “zamiez”. It was also interesting that back then – and still today – that a girl behaving like a boy was called a “Tom Boy”, but a boy behaving like a girl was called a “Macoumere fam”. Today, however, the sophistry of language has made those hitherto bitter descriptions more palatable. Back in my day as a boy, we would hide in a corner and ask, quietly: “Dey say dat man like little boys. You believe dat man boolin’ for true?” Today, the question being asked on radio, TV and the Internet is: “Are we a homophobic society?” So then, are we a homophobic society? Of course we are – if I understand the word. No one is challenging the claim that at least three St. Lucian men were killed in as many years because of their sexual preference. We know how we think about “same-sex” sex. We know how men exhibiting feminine features are treated in our society, where it’s more difficult to assume that a woman is gay. .

Interview with Kenita Placide: the co-executive Director of the organisation from St Lucia ”United and Strong Inc”, created in 2001. She is an activist and advocate for human rights especially of LGBT persons in her country and since 2010 the co-secretary general of CARIFLAGS, the Caribbean regional LGBT network. She has also done advocacy for persons living with HIV as well as participated in programs of HIV prevention. In December 2010 she was elected substitute for the position of ILGA co-secretary general... What convinced you and your organisation “United and Strong” to participate in the UPR process and prepare a report on the situation of LGBT people in your country?... Saint Lucia’s constitution does not explicitly refer to female same sex criminalisation. Would you say that in this case lesbians are more protected than their male counterparts?... What were the challenges for your organisation in compiling the report and being involved in the UPR mechanism?...

Outcomes of the UPR segment (10th cycle) at the 17th session of the UN Human Rights Council (2011, Alternate Link): Saint Lucia is unable to fully accept a recommendation to take the necessary measures to ensure that the constitution guarantees the same rights to all inhabitants of the country, without distinction based on sexual orientation (89.55; Canada), arguing that “the language “sexual orientation” still requires standard international definition. Otherwise, the constitution of Saint Lucia guarantees the protection of fundamental rights and freedoms to all Saint Lucians, in a similar manner as contained in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights.” - Saint Lucia accepted a recommendation to ensure that thorough investigations of allegations of acts of violence committed against individuals because of their sexual orientation or identity are promptly conducted (89.88; Canada), explaining that all reported allegations of violence are thoroughly and promptly investigated, using all available resources. Saint Lucia condemns all forms of violence and human rights violations committed against all persons, including those of different sexual orientation. - Saint Lucia rejected recommendations to decriminalize consensual relations between adults of the same sex (89.92-89.96), “Due to contrary legislative provisions, and deeply entrenched societal morals and values which are still to be overcome. Saint Lucia is currently in the process of constitutional reform and will continue to progressively amend its laws in keeping with the country’s development and democratic processes. Saint Lucia will endeavor to raise public awareness, with regard to discrimination against any persons, where such discrimination occurs. - Kenita Placide made a strong statement on behalf of the Canadian HIV/AIDS Legal Network and United Strong (see annex). Amnesty International expressed disappointment to Saint Lucia’s unwillingness to decriminalise consensual same-sex relations. - Statement at UPR on Saint Lucia (2011).

Confessions of Closet Homosexual in Saint Lucia (2010, Alternate Link): Could you imagine a “thug” or a “shatta” struggling with those types of feelings? Of course he would be given a “heterosexual pill.” While there are many faces in the closet, there are also many personalities; there are those men in the closet, who are in the lifestyle for pleasure, some for money and some looking for love and a deep relationship. I happen to be in the latter group and trust me, it’s not the best group to be in. It was hard for me when I fell in love with a man—a man who told me that he was not gay but that he was merely having sex with men for pleasure. And to think that I fell in love with such a man! You see, while there are those who might want to say that I am part of the deception that is far from the truth, for, because of my embracement of who I am, I have been seeking for depth and a lasting relationship...

St. Lucia May Ban Sizzla Over Violent, Anti-Gay Lyrics (2007). - What is your opinion on the opposition to Sizzla performance in St Lucia? (2007).  - St Lucian law may permit same-sex marriage, says local hotelier (2005, Alternate Link). -  Gay and Outlawed in St Lucia: A Change is Coming? (2003, Alternate Link).  - St. Lucia's Le Sport Resort--Gay-friendly in the Caribbean (2007).

Caribbean AIDS Outreach Efforts Hampered by Homophobic Violence (2003): On June 12 I met clandestinely with a group of gay men in an apartment in St Lucia. These men, who I will call Frederick, William and Paul, all in their early 30s, live a closeted double life, which is reinforced by their fear of being discovered at work. They have no bars to go to and it is totally impossible for them to form an association or meet openly. Gay life in St Lucia revolves around private parties and several networks of gay men who maintain contact with each other... William summarized his situation: “As a gay St Lucian I have always been aware that I am legally defenseless against discrimination, harassment, and violence. Neither my government, nor my church nor any other social welfare organization is even willing to acknowledge my natural existence, far less support my right to live a safe, healthy and fulfilling life. I am disappointed in my country and like so many of my other gay countrymen and women, will probably end up making my real home somewhere else.”... As a result, reaching the gay community is a daunting task, when virtually no one is willing to admit that they are gay or bi-sexual. This is the challenge facing the St Lucia’s health ministry which claims that it wants to scale up its actions relating to the AIDS epidemic...

Resource Links: - The Gully. - Search GayToday.com Archives

Global Gayz: Caribbean: Saint Lucia. Saint Lucia News Reports from 2003 to the Present. - ILGA: Saint Lucia- LGBT rights in Saint Lucia - Sodomy Laws: Saint Lucia. - The International Encyclopedia of SexualitySaint Lucia Not Included.

FRee Forum Online (Numerous Articles): No. 1 choice in the fight against AIDS, for men who have sex with men (MSM) and Gay communities in the Caribbean (To 2009). - FRee Forum Issues: #1: Pride 2002. - # 2: World AIDS Day, 2002. - #3: Carnival 2003. - #4: Pride 2003. - #5: World AIDS Day 2003. # 6: Carnival 2004.  - #7: Prde 2004.  #8: World AIDS Day 2004. - # 9: Pride 2005. - # 10: Pride 2005: Advocacy & Human Rights in the Caribbean. - # 11: World AIDS Day 2005: Keeping the Promise. - # 12: What's Your Position: Caribbean Men & HIV. - # 13: Pride 2006. - # 14: World AIDS Day 2006. - # 15: Health & Social issues for the Men who have Sex with Men Communities in the Caribbean. - # 16: Pride 2007. - # 17: World AIDS Day 2007. - # 18: Carnival 2008. - # 19: Pride 2008 - United by Pride = Bound by Equity.  - # 20: Treatment and Care 2008. - # 21: Prevention 2009: Steps Toward Personal Change.  - # 22: Human Rights & Advocacy: Chances to Change, 2009.

MSMGF News Articles & Documents Resources. By Region & Country:  - Caribbean: - Saint Lucia

Blabbeando Blog: Latin American GLBTQ News / Commentaries: 2005 to Present. 


SAINT KITTS & NEVIS (Wikipedia): - United States Intervention at the UPR Working Group Intervention – Saint Kitts and Nevis (2011): Again, while we take note of your comments regarding LGBT rights, we still remain concerned about the continued criminalization of homosexual conduct and societal discrimination against lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) persons. The criminalization of homosexual conduct intensifies homophobic attitudes in the general population and prevents LGBT persons from fully participating in society and taking advantage of opportunities afforded to all citizens... We urge Saint Kitts and Nevis to decriminalize homosexual conduct by repealing relevant provisions within the Offenses Against the Person Act that may be used to criminalize homosexual conduct between consenting adults.

Saint Kitts and Nevis: UPR Review in the Working Group: 28 January 2011. Adoption in the Plenary: 8 June 2011: P - 76.49. Take effective measures to effectively combat discrimination on all grounds, including on grounds of sexual orientation or identity (Sweden); P - 76.50. Recognize the full and equal enjoyment of all human rights by all and review and abolish all discriminatory laws, including the law that criminalizes homosexuality (Sweden); P - 76.51. Repeal all provisions in its domestic legislation which criminalize sexual activity between consenting adults of the same sex (Spain); P - 76.52. Make the necessary efforts to repeal all legal provisions which can be applied to criminalize consensual sexual activity between adults of the same sex (Uruguay); P - 76.53. Bring its legislation into conformity with its commitment to equality and non-discrimination, by repealing all legal provisions that criminalize sexual activity between consenting adults (Canada); P - 76.54. Bring its legislation into conformity with international human rights obligations, by repealing all provisions which may discriminate against lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender persons (Norway); P - 76.55. Decriminalize homosexual conduct by repealing relevant provisions within the Offences against the Person Act that may be used to criminalize homosexual conduct between consenting adults (United States); P - 76.56. Repeal provisions in national law, notably sections 56 and 57 of the Offences against Persons Act, which criminalize sexual relations between consenting adults of the same sex (France). - Saint Kitts and Nevis (Related Document).

HIV fears put repeal of homophobic laws on the table for Caribbean nations (2010): On World Aids Day there is some hope for gay rights supporters with the St Kitts and Nevis prime minister urging fellow leaders to change their stance... Examples abound of government-supported homophobia in the Caribbean. In a recent UN resolution to condemn arbitrary killings based on various identity features, nearly all Commonwealth Caribbean states voted to remove "sexual orientation" as a category. With the exception of the Bahamas, former British colonies of the region all retain laws criminalising male homosexuality. These laws either date back to, or are a literal transplantation of the Victorian 1861 Offences against the Person Act. Offences of "buggery" or anal sex and "gross indecency" meaning any sexual intimacy between men, remain on the books...

Submission in the UPR review of Saint Kitts and Nevis (2010): Section 56 ―The “abominable crime of buggery” is punishable by up to 10 years imprisonment, with or without hard labour. Section 57 ―Whosoever attempts to commit the said abominable crime, or is guilty of any assault with intent to commit the same, or of any indecent assault upon any male person, is guilty of misdemeanour, and being convicted thereof shall be liable to be imprisoned for any term not exceeding four (4) years with or without hard labour... Provisions against sexual activity between consenting adults have been found to constitute a clear violation of international human rights law... The Committee further considered that such laws interfere with privacy rights, whether or not they are actively enforced, and “run counter to the implementation of effective education programmes in respect of HIV/AIDS prevention” by driving marginalised communities underground..

Resource Links: - The Gully. - Search GayToday.com Archives

Global Gayz: Caribbean: Saint Kitts and Nevis. Saint Kitts and Nevis News Reports from 2005 to the Present. - ILGA: Saint Kitts and Nevis- LGBT rights in Saint Kitts and Nevis - Sodomy Laws: Saint Kitts and Nevis. - The International Encyclopedia of SexualitySaint Kitts and Nevis Not Included.

MSMGF News Articles & Documents Resources. By Region & Country:  - Caribbean: - Saint Kitts and Nevis

Blabbeando Blog: Latin American GLBTQ News / Commentaries: 2005 to Present.


ANTIGUA & BARBUDA (Wikipedia): - Sir Clare decries country's non-signing of Gay Rights Declaration (2011, Alternate Link): Human Rights Activist Sir Clare Roberts has told government it should have taken the lead in the local fight to reduce stigma and discrimination against persons of a different sexual orientation by signing a recent United Nations statement on Gay Rights. “Government has to set the trend. It can’t just follow the sentiments of the populace; you have to do the right thing and lead people in the right direction. I suspect Antigua did not sign because it would not make for good domestic coverage,” he surmised.

Antigua & Barbuda not party to latest UN gay rights pact (2011): Antigua & Barbuda was not among countries that recently signed a statement by the United Nations Human Rights Council to support gay rights. The agreement, which was signed by 85 states on March 22, calls on the member nations “to take steps aimed at ending acts of violence, criminal sanctions and related human rights violations committed against individuals because of their sexual orientation or gender identity.” Reverend Karen Brotherson is the executive director and programme manager of the Health, Hope and HIV (Triple-N) Network, a non-governmental advocacy group here. She says although Antigua is not a signatory to the latest agreement, the country has been taken taking steps to address the very concerns that are articulated in the UN statement...

Homosexuality topic sparks spirited debate (2011): The touchy subject of homosexuality caused debate to rage around an appearance by writer D Gisele Isaac-Arrindell and Antigua Christian Council President Bishop Kingsley Lewis on OBSERVER Radio yesterday... The principal point on which the clergyman and the writer agreed was that regardless of the reason, someone acting on attraction to the same sex is deserving of care and love. They, however, expressed different ways for the society to interact with people of such inclination. Both panellists were pretty much in concert, except on the point of whether attraction to the same sex was genetic or acquired...

Antigua and Barbuda: Homophobia regarded as a major setback to the HIV fight (2009): It is the belief that often it is a glance or a whisper that creates an uneasy feeling. Sometimes it is something more blatant like a foul remark that underscores the thorny, cutting reality of homophobia in Antigua and Barbuda and which has created setbacks in the country’s AIDS response. There is rarely any open dialogue on the local community of lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) Antiguans and Barbudans that has retreated into obscurity afraid of venturing out for HIV-related information, HIV testing and more importantly, treatment. President of the HHH network in Antigua and Barbuda, Lyle Evans said while there are no exact figures are out, it is widely believed that only a few HIV-infected LGBT Antiguans and Barbudans are currently receiving anti-retroviral treatment, solely because of homophobia, which is aligned with that chronic phrase– stigma and discrimination that has seriously affected HIV efforts.

2009 Human Rights Reports: Antigua and Barbuda (2009): Societal Abuses, Discrimination, and Acts of Violence Based on Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity: Homosexual acts are illegal, carrying a maximum penalty of 15 years in prison. There were no reports of violence or discrimination based on sexual orientation. There was no information as to the existence of any lesbian, gay, bisexual, or transgender organizations in the country...

Being Gay in Antigua and Barbuda  (2009): It is a well noted fact that Antiguans and Barbudans are very divided on the issue of homosexuality, however the exact ratio is still yet to be determined. The point that I am trying to raise is that just like any other hot issue, it is placed on the back burner, in the hopes that it will eventually go away... Furthermore, I am tired of seeing children who exhibit “so called” gay tendencies being victimized, not only by their peers but also their parents. Numerous amounts of times these children are forced to adhere to strict “moral beliefs” which states that being gay is a curse and they will rot in hell forever if they do not change... For my fellow gay Antiguans and Barbudans, It is time that we begin to stop allowing ourselves to be made victims of society’s’ biases towards us. We are no less of Human beings than the next person. If we do not take the first stand then this issue will forever be shoved under the carpet and we all know that it will eventually create an ugly sight. I am therefore appealing to all Gay Antiguans and Barbudans particularly those in high positions, to begin to set the pace that us, the smaller, less influential Gay Antiguans and Barbudans can follow in making this country a place where we can all live together in peace and harmony, without fear of prejudice or even death.

Incident on the The Island of Antigua – Shannon and Molly (2008): On Monday morning the following story appeared on the front page of the local newspaper: Police prevent same-sex marriage Monday November 10 2008 By; Aarati Jagdeo A same-sex marriage ceremony was prevented by police last Saturday afternoon, after they received a call that such a union was set to take place at Cocos Hotel and Restaurant. According to Inspector Cornelius Charles, the female couple is from California and had invited friends and family down to take part in the ceremony. When police arrived at Cocos, they met everything set up and in place for a wedding ceremony, which had not yet begun. The police then rounded up all the individuals involved, including the couple and the conductors of the ceremony. After some consultation with the heads of the police force and collaboration with the director of public prosecutions (DPP), it was decided that the couple would not be charged because the actual act of marriage did not occur...

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Global Gayz: Caribbean: Antigua and Barbuda. Antigua and Barbuda News Reports from 2007 to the Present. - ILGA: Antigua and BarbudaLGBT rights in Antigua and Barbuda. - Sodomy Laws. - The International Encyclopedia of SexualityAntigua and Barbuda Not Included.

MSMGF News Articles & Documents Resources. By Region & Country:  - Caribbean: - Antigua and Barbuda

Blabbeando Blog: Latin American GLBTQ News / Commentaries: 2005 to Present.


U.S. VIRGIN ISLANDS (Wikipedia): - Kevin Aviance leaves hospital, St. Marteen gay bash ring leader surrenders. - Four convicted in St. Maarten attack on gays. - U.S. Virgin Islands Court LGTB Couples With Wedding Bells N/A. - Community leaders talk about legalizing same-sex marriage as way of boosting tourism in U.S. Virgin Islands.

GLBT Caribbean Travel (2011): Even though some of the islands of the Caribbean have a reputation for homophobia (Jamaica is a prime example), for most of the islands, once there are no public displays of affection (PDA), most people look the other way and are generally comfortable and friendly with gay and lesbian travelers... Generally speaking, when traveling in the Caribbean, once gay and lesbian travelers remember the PDA rule and all should be well!... The French, Dutch, and US islands welcome gay travelers with open arms and actively promote themselves as "gay friendly"....

Top 5 Gay and Lesbian Friendly Destinations in the Caribbean: The U.S. Virgin Islands -- St. Croix, in particular -- has become a mecca for gay travelers, many of whom wind up at the welcoming Sand Castle on the Beach Resort in Fredericksted. Gay travelers can expect a friendly and tolerant attitude throughout the U.S.V.I., and if public displays of affection are not exactly embraced, the reaction is not likely to be more than a second glance.

Gay Guide: The U.S. Virgin Islands has a tiny gay scene focused around gay and lesbian visitors. The main part of the scene (if thats the right word to use) is centred on the gay beach at Solomon Bay. In addition, the islands have almost always had some gay nightlife as well but things constantly change. Visitor should ask around the gay beaches or one of the gay-friendly hotels (See the Expedia website below) to find out whats current.

Gay Virgin Islands?: “Just got back from St. Thomas…and after checking the web for gay friends bars or places ended up finding that they had all closed.  Talked to a few people at the resort we stayed at for a week, Marriott Frenchman’s Reef, and they said that there are a lot of gays on the island but they tend to all get together mostly by word of mouth.  If you can find a gay person at a local resort they are more than happy to direct you in the right direction…  The “locals” tend to be a bit more uptight but if you can find others that are from the main land and they seem to be much more approachable when you ask them outright about gay friendly spots.”

St. Thomas, St. John, St. Croix: While there isn’t a specifically gay nightlife scene on any of the three islands, the acceptance level is a welcome change from many Caribbean islands... Among its other city pleasures, St. Thomas once had a thriving gay nightlife scene. That’s no longer the case, though you’ll find a gay-friendly atmosphere (and a lot of “down low” action). “A lot of men here are in the closet,” notes W. “Champagne” Chandler, a longtime fixture of St. Thomas’ gay scene. “I’m in the living room,” he adds. “With pumps on.”... That’s to be expected on an island that’s so gay-friendly. “It’s called Love City, after all,” smiles Kessock who commutes here [St. John] daily from St. Thomas. “I’ve never had any problem at all on either island, and I’m an openly gay man.”... For a mega-resort, you can’t do better than the Westin St. John, which occupies a prime piece of land right on Great Cruz Bay and has nicely furnished rooms on and above the sea (hint: the ones on the hillside tend to have fewer children). As it’s famous for weddings, I ask if they’ll do gay ceremonies as well. The answer comes without hesitation: “Of course.”... Another appealing feature is the extensive gay network. “There’s been a quiet gay/lesbian scene here [St. Croix] since the 50’s and 60’s,” says Diane Butler, owner of the wonderful Twin City Coffeehouse in downtown Christiansted, as her partner Theresa (and mother of their two-year old twins) dishes up my espresso and freshly-baked carrot muffin. “But people who have the idea this is going to be another South Beach will be disappointed. There’s no gay bar here,” she tells me...

Resource Links: - The Gully. - Search GayToday.com Archives

Global Gayz: Caribbean: United States Virgin Islands. United States Virgin Islands News Reports from 2004 to the Present. - ILGA: United States Virgin Islands. LGBT rights in the United States Virgin Islands. - Sodomy Laws: United States Virgin Islands. - The International Encyclopedia of SexualityUnited States Virgin Islands Not Included.

FRee Forum Online (Numerous Articles): No. 1 choice in the fight against AIDS, for men who have sex with men (MSM) and Gay communities in the Caribbean (To 2009). - FRee Forum Issues: #1: Pride 2002. - # 2: World AIDS Day, 2002. - #3: Carnival 2003. - #4: Pride 2003. - #5: World AIDS Day 2003. # 6: Carnival 2004.  - #7: Prde 2004.  #8: World AIDS Day 2004. - # 9: Pride 2005. - # 10: Pride 2005: Advocacy & Human Rights in the Caribbean. - # 11: World AIDS Day 2005: Keeping the Promise. - # 12: What's Your Position: Caribbean Men & HIV. - # 13: Pride 2006. - # 14: World AIDS Day 2006. - # 15: Health & Social issues for the Men who have Sex with Men Communities in the Caribbean. - # 16: Pride 2007. - # 17: World AIDS Day 2007. - # 18: Carnival 2008. - # 19: Pride 2008 - United by Pride = Bound by Equity.  - # 20: Treatment and Care 2008. - # 21: Prevention 2009: Steps Toward Personal Change.  - # 22: Human Rights & Advocacy: Chances to Change, 2009.

MSMGF News Articles & Documents Resources. By Region & Country:  - Caribbean: - United States Virgin Islands

Blabbeando Blog: Latin American GLBTQ News / Commentaries: 2005 to Present.

 

BRITISH VIRGIN ISLANDS (Wikipedia):

Caribbean Territories Resist British Pressure on gay sex (1998): Officials of Britain's Caribbean Dependent Territories - Anguilla, the British Virgin Islands, the Cayman Islands, Montserrat and the Turks & Caicos Islands - are angry over the British government's demand that they legalize homosexuality. - Britain To Scrap Anti-Gay Laws (2000). - Britain repeals laws banning homosexuality in Caribbean territories (2001): Britain has scrapped laws that made homosexuality illegal in its five Caribbean territories, acting after legislatures refused to do so... The order from the British Privy Council, which acts as the highest court for the territories, decriminalizes homosexual acts between consenting adults in private. The order went into effect this week and applies to Anguilla, the Cayman Islands, the British Virgin Islands, Montserrat and the Turks and Caicos. Britain Scraps Homosexuality Laws.

Resource Links: - The Gully. - Search GayToday.com Archives

Global Gayz: Caribbean: British Virgin Islands. - ILGA: British Virgin Islands. - LGBT rights in the British Virgin Islands. - Sodomy Laws. - The International Encyclopedia of SexualityBritish Virgin Islands Not Included.

FRee Forum Online (Numerous Articles): No. 1 choice in the fight against AIDS, for men who have sex with men (MSM) and Gay communities in the Caribbean (To 2009). - FRee Forum Issues: #1: Pride 2002. - # 2: World AIDS Day, 2002. - #3: Carnival 2003. - #4: Pride 2003. - #5: World AIDS Day 2003. # 6: Carnival 2004.  - #7: Prde 2004.  #8: World AIDS Day 2004. - # 9: Pride 2005. - # 10: Pride 2005: Advocacy & Human Rights in the Caribbean. - # 11: World AIDS Day 2005: Keeping the Promise. - # 12: What's Your Position: Caribbean Men & HIV. - # 13: Pride 2006. - # 14: World AIDS Day 2006. - # 15: Health & Social issues for the Men who have Sex with Men Communities in the Caribbean. - # 16: Pride 2007. - # 17: World AIDS Day 2007. - # 18: Carnival 2008. - # 19: Pride 2008 - United by Pride = Bound by Equity.  - # 20: Treatment and Care 2008. - # 21: Prevention 2009: Steps Toward Personal Change.  - # 22: Human Rights & Advocacy: Chances to Change, 2009.

MSMGF News Articles & Documents Resources. By Region & Country:  - Caribbean: - British Virgin Islands

Blabbeando Blog: Latin American GLBTQ News / Commentaries: 2005 to Present.



TURKS & CAICOS ISLAND (Wikipedia): - UK seizes control over Turks and Caicos Islands amid corruption allegations (2009). - A Conversation with a Resident about Being Gay in the Turks & Caicos Islands (TCI) (2007): So my "insider's perspective" will come as a member of an immigrant communities here, one of many such communities. but I reside in an area that is overwhelmingly Belonger and Haitian inhabited... Although I'm out to my family and friends and even some coworkers here, I still have to be careful about being publicly Out. There is a lot of corruption here whereby any government official who doesn't ‘like’ a person could cause numbers of problems for them, their immigration status, their boss, their company/ organization, etc. All it takes to ruin a life here is one vindictive person with their hand on a stamp. In August 2009, the UK Government (which formerly didn’t bat an eye at the overt corruption here) declared Direct Rule as a response to the corruption. Publicly, the homophobia is mostly of the Christian-influenced type... There are a few Out Belonger guys here, but I don’t know any of them well enough to know how they feel about it. They seem to be doing well for themselves... In the Haitian community, the gay guys are mostly closeted but won’t waste any time in making their intentions known in private. We also have a lot of Dominican Republic nationals here. As mentioned in the Dominican Republic article, the sliding scale of sexuality and flirtatiousness they have can be confusing; you don’t know whether they are being friendly or hitting on you but this is also the community most gay men who are looking to pay for sex turn to....

Turks & Caicos chief minister responds to opposition leader over gay cruise (2005, Alternate Link): Taylor, in his release issued on Tuesday, accused the government of allowing a cruise ship carrying 2,000 gay and lesbian tourists to dock in Grand Turk. He went on to express his party’s outrage with the actions of a financially and morally bankrupt government that, in the words of Taylor, “is prepared to prostitute our future all in the name of development and financial gain.”... In his response, Chief Minister Misick began by assuring the citizens of the country that neither he nor his Ministers were aware of the plans for the cruise ship carrying “gay and lesbian tourists” to visit the shores of Grand Turk. He continued by saying, “Whilst as a government we respect civil liberties, the freedom of choice and we do refrain from discriminating, we are in no way supportive of or encourage the alternative lifestyle of these individuals. We regret that our people and especially our children have been exposed to this type of activity and express concern in this regard.”...

Caribbean Territories Resist British Pressure on gay sex (1998): Officials of Britain's Caribbean Dependent Territories - Anguilla, the British Virgin Islands, the Cayman Islands, Montserrat and the Turks & Caicos Islands - are angry over the British government's demand that they legalize homosexuality. - Turks & Caicos Islands Resist London's Gay Agenda (1999). - Britain To Scrap Anti-Gay Laws (2000). - Britain repeals laws banning homosexuality in Caribbean territories (2001): Britain has scrapped laws that made homosexuality illegal in its five Caribbean territories, acting after legislatures refused to do so... The order from the British Privy Council, which acts as the highest court for the territories, decriminalizes homosexual acts between consenting adults in private. The order went into effect this week and applies to Anguilla, the Cayman Islands, the British Virgin Islands, Montserrat and the Turks and Caicos. Britain Scraps Homosexuality Laws.

Providenciales, Turks and Caicos Islands: I was a bit concerned with a gay couple going to the Turks and Caicos Islands for such a lengthy period of time, being that this island is not really listed as "gay friendly", but then again it wasn't listed as not being "gay friendly" either. It soon appeared that whether being gay or straight there made no difference at all. There really isn't a per say "gay scene" there; Provo is a very small city...

Resource Links: - The Gully. - Search GayToday.com Archives

Global Gayz: Caribbean: Turks and Caicos Islands. - Turks and Caicos Islands News Reports from 2005 to the Present. - ILGA: Turks and Caicos Islands. - LGBT rights in the Turks and Caicos Islands. - Sodomy Laws. - The International Encyclopedia of SexualityTurks and Caicos Islands Not Included.

FRee Forum Online (Numerous Articles): No. 1 choice in the fight against AIDS, for men who have sex with men (MSM) and Gay communities in the Caribbean (To 2009). - FRee Forum Issues: #1: Pride 2002. - # 2: World AIDS Day, 2002. - #3: Carnival 2003. - #4: Pride 2003. - #5: World AIDS Day 2003. # 6: Carnival 2004.  - #7: Prde 2004.  #8: World AIDS Day 2004. - # 9: Pride 2005. - # 10: Pride 2005: Advocacy & Human Rights in the Caribbean. - # 11: World AIDS Day 2005: Keeping the Promise. - # 12: What's Your Position: Caribbean Men & HIV. - # 13: Pride 2006. - # 14: World AIDS Day 2006. - # 15: Health & Social issues for the Men who have Sex with Men Communities in the Caribbean. - # 16: Pride 2007. - # 17: World AIDS Day 2007. - # 18: Carnival 2008. - # 19: Pride 2008 - United by Pride = Bound by Equity.  - # 20: Treatment and Care 2008. - # 21: Prevention 2009: Steps Toward Personal Change.  - # 22: Human Rights & Advocacy: Chances to Change, 2009.

MSMGF News Articles & Documents Resources. By Region & Country:  - Caribbean: - Turks and Caicos Islands

Blabbeando Blog: Latin American GLBTQ News / Commentaries: 2005 to Present.


MONTSERRAT (Wikipedia): -

Resource Links: - The Gully. - Search GayToday.com Archives

Global Gayz: Caribbean: Montserrat. - Montserrat News Reports from 2001 to the Present. - ILGA: Montserrat- LGBT rights in Montserrat. - Sodomy Laws. - The International Encyclopedia of SexualityMontserrat Not Included.

MSMGF News Articles & Documents Resources. By Region & Country:  - Caribbean: - Montserrat

Blabbeando Blog: Latin American GLBTQ News / Commentaries: 2005 to Present.



CAYMAN ISLANDS (Wikipedia): - Cayman Islands Police Arrest Massachusetts Man for Gay Kiss (2008): On the way to the George Town police station, Mr. Chandler said the superior officer told him the 'law was stupid' but that he had to enforce it. Once at George Town Police Station, Mr. Chandler was made to wait to speak to an inspector. The inspector never came, but the original officer came back and gave him a stern talking to, telling him he didn’t care what he did in private, but that he could not kiss his partner in a public place. He attempted to make Mr. Chandler promise not to kiss his partner in public again and then released him."


"Rainbow" welcome for gay cruisers in the Cayman Islands (2006): Eight years after they were forced to make a detour to avoid the wrath of Caymanians, 3,200 gay tourists landed on Grand Cayman on Tuesday to a "rainbow" type welcome in the traditionally Christian Island. - Gay cruisers return to Cayman (2006): Over 3,000 gay cruisers are expected to converge on Grand Cayman Tuesday 31 January, in what is billed as “The Largest Gay Cruise in History II” by the specialist gay tour operator, Atlantis Events. The Navigator of the Seas cruise begins in Miami on Saturday, 28 January with 3,200 out of the ship’s 3,840 passengers, reported to be gay men and women.

México rompe las barreras a favor de los gays en un continente homófobo (2010, Translation): Jaime López ultimaba los detalles de su boda mientras responde a El Confidencial. Su enlace no sería noticia si no figurase entre los cinco primeros que tienen lugar entre parejas del mismo sexo -dos de hombres y tres de mujeres- en el Distrito Federal mexicano, la única ciudad de Latinoamérica y el Caribe que ha aprobado el matrimonio entre homosexuales con plenos derechos, lo que incluye la adopción. En esta región once países aún consideran la homosexualidad un crimen penado con la cárcel.  El cambio en el código civil impulsado por el izquierdista Marcelo Ebrard, alcalde de Ciudad de México, ha supuesto “un gran respiro” para el colectivo de gays, lesbianas, bisexuales y transexuales (LGBT), del que López, abogado, es uno de sus principales activistas y responsables. Pero la lucha por la igualdad de derechos y contra la discriminación por razones de orientación e identidad sexual, que en Latinoamérica tuvo poco eco como consecuencia de los regímenes totalitarias (y sociedades conservadoras muy influenciadas por la Iglesia católica), es aún larga, explica López...

Naciones Unidas: Para controlar la epidemia del VIH en América Latina y en el Caribe, los países deben hacer esfuerzos para eliminar la homofobia y la transfobia (2009, Translation): ."El estigma, la discriminación y la violencia contra los homosexuales y otras personas que tienen relaciones sexuales con personas del mismo sexo, conocida como homofobia, y contra la población de transgénero, travestis o transexuales, también conocida como transfobia, "amenazan los esfuerzos para detener la epidemia de VIH y Sida en América Latina y el Caribe", afirmó hoy un grupo de agencias de las Naciones Unidas, en anticipación al 17 de Mayo- Día Internacional contra la homofobia. Las evidencias indican que estas poblaciones son desproporcionadamente afectadas por la epidemia de VIH. Sin embargo el miedo a la discriminación disuade a estas personas a hacerse la prueba del VIH, recibir consejería, buscar apoyo y tratamiento antirretroviral cuando este sea necesario. El Grupo de Directores Regionales de América Latina y el Caribe de la ONU -que reúne a 10 agencias, fondos, programas y al Secretariado de ONUSIDA que trabajan en la respuesta al VIH en la región- está motivando a los Gobiernos y la sociedad civil a renovar los esfuerzos para eliminar la homofobia y la transfobia...

Gay cruisers vow to return to the Cayman Islands (2006): The cruise passengers on the Navigator of the Seas which came to Grand Cayman last week and was billed as one of the biggest gay cruises in history may have caused a stir in the Cayman Islands amid protest and welcome, but the passengers have vowed to return for what they said was another "overwhelmingly positive" response. - Gay cruise sparks debate in Cayman (2006): The government of the British territory says it has a legal obligation to pursue a tourism policy of "non-discrimination" on the grounds of sexual orientation. "The Government confirms its support of a Bill of Rights being enshrined in our country's proposed new constitution and notes that the formal adoption of such a Bill will make it unlawful to discriminate on the grounds of, inter alia, race, age, religion or sexual orientation," it said in a statement. .

Caribbean Territories Resist British Pressure on gay sex (1998): Officials of Britain's Caribbean Dependent Territories - Anguilla, the British Virgin Islands, the Cayman Islands, Montserrat and the Turks & Caicos Islands - are angry over the British government's demand that they legalize homosexuality. - Britain To Scrap Anti-Gay Laws (2000). - Britain repeals laws banning homosexuality in Caribbean territories (2001): Britain has scrapped laws that made homosexuality illegal in its five Caribbean territories, acting after legislatures refused to do so... The order from the British Privy Council, which acts as the highest court for the territories, decriminalizes homosexual acts between consenting adults in private. The order went into effect this week and applies to Anguilla, the Cayman Islands, the British Virgin Islands, Montserrat and the Turks and Caicos. Britain Scraps Homosexuality Laws. - Repeal of Caymans' Anti-Gay Laws Strains 'Partnership' With Britain (2001): Now, for the first time in more than a century, it is legal to engage in homosexual acts here. And the response from church leaders and some of their flock has been nothing short of a mini-Crusade. - Cayman Churches Want Anti-Gay Law (2001).

Gay Marriage Law Imminent? (2007) A ruling in the Dutch Supreme Court, which ordered Aruba to recognise same-sex marriages registered in the Netherlands, has rekindled the gay rights debate in the Cayman Islands... The People for Referendum said the Foreign & Commonwealth Office (FCO), which overseas the governance of Cayman, could force gay marriages down the throats of the Islands' residents.

Grand Cayman says No to homophobic singers (2006): Dramatic change can happen quickly, especially in the bright light of the Caribbean sun.  Up until five years ago homosexuality was a crime on the Cayman Islands, the anti-gay laws openly supported and promoted by religious leaders, the Cayman Ministers Association.  In fact, the Cayman islands were at one time governed by Jamaica which is just slightly safer than Iran for gay men and women. So it is nothing short of remarkable to discover that the Cayman Immigration Department has officially declared their islands off limits to anti-gay performers, particularly from their next door neighbor and former master, Jamaica.

Cayman Islands Government Minister Defends Ban on Gay Sex (1999). - Cayman Churches Want Anti-Gay Law (2001). - Britain Forces Caribbean Territories To Accept Homosexuality (2001). -  Repeal of Caymans’ Anti-Gay Laws Strains ‘Partnership’ with Britain (2001). - Cayman Islands Still Furious Over Sodomy Repeal N/A.  - Trouble In Paradise: dangers gay travelers face in overseas places that are anti-gay (1999). - Bahamians Protest Gay Cruise Ship (1998). - Gay cruise banned from the Cayman Islands (1998). - Gay Group Opposes Ban by Cayman Islands (1998).

A View of Distinction on the White Paper N/A: "3. Good Governance ­ Human Right ­ (Changes in law legalising homosexuality) While undoubtedly laws against homosexuality can, in certain circumstances be classed as discriminatory, they reflect a view deeply held by religious people in the Cayman Islands and strongly advocated by the local churches, (although these sometimes seem to have lost the true Christian spirit). I am in favour of abolition of illegality of homosexual acts but feel that we must ensure that the new legislation completely restricts these acts to consenting adults in private. I feel it is most important the the legislation prohibits public display and prohibits public support of homosexuality. All that should be removed is the criminal sanction. I also feel it is important that the age of consent be 19 (not 18) in order to prevent homosexuality becoming accepted in schools.>>" - Between Colony and Independence: Constitutional Modernization in the Cayman Islands (2004).

GLBT Caribbean Travel (2011): Even though some of the islands of the Caribbean have a reputation for homophobia (Jamaica is a prime example), for most of the islands, once there are no public displays of affection (PDA), most people look the other way and are generally comfortable and friendly with gay and lesbian travelers... Generally speaking, when traveling in the Caribbean, once gay and lesbian travelers remember the PDA rule and all should be well! ... Barbados and the Cayman Islands also tend to be a bit homophobic, but in Barbados, once there is no PDA, people are generally welcoming to gay and lesbian travelers.

Resource Links: - The Gully. - Search GayToday.com Archives

Global Gayz: Caribbean: Cayman Islands. - ILGA: Cayman Islands. - LGBT rights in the Cayman Islands. - Sodomy Laws: Cayman Islands. - The International Encyc